Advances in deep learning techniques have allowed recent work to reconstruct the shape of a single object given only one RBG image as input. Building on common encoder-decoder architectures for this task, we propose three extensions: (1) ray-traced skip connections that propagate local 2D information to the output 3D volume in a physically correct manner; (2) a hybrid 3D volume representation that enables building translation equivariant models, while at the same time encoding fine object details without an excessive memory footprint; (3) a reconstruction loss tailored to capture overall object geometry. Furthermore, we adapt our model to address the harder task of reconstructing multiple objects from a single image. We reconstruct all objects jointly in one pass, producing a coherent reconstruction, where all objects live in a single consistent 3D coordinate frame relative to the camera and they do not intersect in 3D space. We also handle occlusions and resolve them by hallucinating the missing object parts in the 3D volume. We validate the impact of our contributions experimentally both on synthetic data from ShapeNet as well as real images from Pix3D. Our method outperforms the state-of-the-art single-object methods on both datasets. Finally, we evaluate performance quantitatively on multiple object reconstruction with synthetic scenes assembled from ShapeNet objects.
We propose a method to detect and reconstruct multiple 3D objects from a single RGB image. The key idea is to optimize for detection, alignment and shape jointly over all objects in the RGB image, while focusing on realistic and physically plausible reconstructions. To this end, we propose a keypoint detector that localizes objects as center points and directly predicts all object properties, including 9-DoF bounding boxes and 3D shapes -- all in a single forward pass. The proposed method formulates 3D shape reconstruction as a shape selection problem, i.e. it selects among exemplar shapes from a given database. This makes it agnostic to shape representations, which enables a lightweight reconstruction of realistic and visually-pleasing shapes based on CAD-models, while the training objective is formulated around point clouds and voxel representations. A collision-loss promotes non-intersecting objects, further increasing the reconstruction realism. Given the RGB image, the presented approach performs lightweight reconstruction in a single-stage, it is real-time capable, fully differentiable and end-to-end trainable. Our experiments compare multiple approaches for 9-DoF bounding box estimation, evaluate the novel shape-selection mechanism and compare to recent methods in terms of 3D bounding box estimation and 3D shape reconstruction quality.
Inspired by the recent success of methods that employ shape priors to achieve robust 3D reconstructions, we propose a novel recurrent neural network architecture that we call the 3D Recurrent Reconstruction Neural Network (3D-R2N2). The network learns a mapping from images of objects to their underlying 3D shapes from a large collection of synthetic data. Our network takes in one or more images of an object instance from arbitrary viewpoints and outputs a reconstruction of the object in the form of a 3D occupancy grid. Unlike most of the previous works, our network does not require any image annotations or object class labels for training or testing. Our extensive experimental analysis shows that our reconstruction framework i) outperforms the state-of-the-art methods for single view reconstruction, and ii) enables the 3D reconstruction of objects in situations when traditional SFM/SLAM methods fail (because of lack of texture and/or wide baseline).
Recovering the 3D shape of an object from single or multiple images with deep neural networks has been attracting increasing attention in the past few years. Mainstream works (e.g. 3D-R2N2) use recurrent neural networks (RNNs) to sequentially fuse feature maps of input images. However, RNN-based approaches are unable to produce consistent reconstruction results when given the same input images with different orders. Moreover, RNNs may forget important features from early input images due to long-term memory loss. To address these issues, we propose a novel framework for single-view and multi-view 3D object reconstruction, named Pix2Vox++. By using a well-designed encoder-decoder, it generates a coarse 3D volume from each input image. A multi-scale context-aware fusion module is then introduced to adaptively select high-quality reconstructions for different parts from all coarse 3D volumes to obtain a fused 3D volume. To further correct the wrongly recovered parts in the fused 3D volume, a refiner is adopted to generate the final output. Experimental results on the ShapeNet, Pix3D, and Things3D benchmarks show that Pix2Vox++ performs favorably against state-of-the-art methods in terms of both accuracy and efficiency.
3D reconstruction from a single RGB image is a challenging problem in computer vision. Previous methods are usually solely data-driven, which lead to inaccurate 3D shape recovery and limited generalization capability. In this work, we focus on object-level 3D reconstruction and present a geometry-based end-to-end deep learning framework that first detects the mirror plane of reflection symmetry that commonly exists in man-made objects and then predicts depth maps by finding the intra-image pixel-wise correspondence of the symmetry. Our method fully utilizes the geometric cues from symmetry during the test time by building plane-sweep cost volumes, a powerful tool that has been used in multi-view stereopsis. To our knowledge, this is the first work that uses the concept of cost volumes in the setting of single-image 3D reconstruction. We conduct extensive experiments on the ShapeNet dataset and find that our reconstruction method significantly outperforms the previous state-of-the-art single-view 3D reconstruction networks in term of the accuracy of camera poses and depth maps, without requiring objects being completely symmetric. Code is available at https://github.com/zhou13/symmetrynet.
3D object reconstruction is a fundamental task of many robotics and AI problems. With the aid of deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs), 3D object reconstruction has witnessed a significant progress in recent years. However, possibly due to the prohibitively high dimension of the 3D object space, the results from deep CNNs are often prone to missing some shape details. In this paper, we present an approach which aims to preserve more shape details and improve the reconstruction quality. The key idea of our method is to leverage object mask and pose estimation from CNNs to assist the 3D shape learning by constructing a probabilistic single-view visual hull inside of the network. Our method works by first predicting a coarse shape as well as the object pose and silhouette using CNNs, followed by a novel 3D refinement CNN which refines the coarse shapes using the constructed probabilistic visual hulls. Experiment on both synthetic data and real images show that embedding a single-view visual hull for shape refinement can significantly improve the reconstruction quality by recovering more shapes details and improving shape consistency with the input image.
Existing works on single-image 3D reconstruction mainly focus on shape recovery. In this work, we study a new problem, that is, simultaneously recovering 3D shape and surface color from a single image, namely "colorful 3D reconstruction". This problem is both challenging and intriguing because the ability to infer textured 3D model from a single image is at the core of visual understanding. Here, we propose an end-to-end trainable framework, Colorful Voxel Network (CVN), to tackle this problem. Conditioned on a single 2D input, CVN learns to decompose shape and surface color information of a 3D object into a 3D shape branch and a surface color branch, respectively. Specifically, for the shape recovery, we generate a shape volume with the state of its voxels indicating occupancy. For the surface color recovery, we combine the strength of appearance hallucination and geometric projection by concurrently learning a regressed color volume and a 2D-to-3D flow volume, which are then fused into a blended color volume. The final textured 3D model is obtained by sampling color from the blended color volume at the positions of occupied voxels in the shape volume. To handle the severe sparse volume representations, a novel loss function, Mean Squared False Cross-Entropy Loss (MSFCEL), is designed. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our approach achieves significant improvement over baselines, and shows great generalization across diverse object categories and arbitrary viewpoints.
Dense 3D object reconstruction from a single image has recently witnessed remarkable advances, but supervising neural networks with ground-truth 3D shapes is impractical due to the laborious process of creating paired image-shape datasets. Recent efforts have turned to learning 3D reconstruction without 3D supervision from RGB images with annotated 2D silhouettes, dramatically reducing the cost and effort of annotation. These techniques, however, remain impractical as they still require multi-view annotations of the same object instance during training. As a result, most experimental efforts to date have been limited to synthetic datasets. In this paper, we address this issue and propose SDF-SRN, an approach that requires only a single view of objects at training time, offering greater utility for real-world scenarios. SDF-SRN learns implicit 3D shape representations to handle arbitrary shape topologies that may exist in the datasets. To this end, we derive a novel differentiable rendering formulation for learning signed distance functions (SDF) from 2D silhouettes. Our method outperforms the state of the art under challenging single-view supervision settings on both synthetic and real-world datasets.
Learning to reconstruct 3D shapes using 2D images is an active research topic, with benefits of not requiring expensive 3D data. However, most work in this direction requires multi-view images for each object instance as training supervision, which oftentimes does not apply in practice. In this paper, we relax the common multi-view assumption and explore a more challenging yet more realistic setup of learning 3D shape from only single-view images. The major difficulty lies in insufficient constraints that can be provided by single view images, which leads to the problem of pose entanglement in learned shape space. As a result, reconstructed shapes vary along input pose and have poor accuracy. We address this problem by taking a novel domain adaptation perspective, and propose an effective adversarial domain confusion method to learn pose-disentangled compact shape space. Experiments on single-view reconstruction show effectiveness in solving pose entanglement, and the proposed method achieves state-of-the-art reconstruction accuracy with high efficiency.
While data has certainly taken the center stage in computer vision in recent years, it can still be difficult to obtain in certain scenarios. In particular, acquiring ground truth 3D shapes of objects pictured in 2D images remains a challenging feat and this has hampered progress in recognition-based object reconstruction from a single image. Here we propose to bypass previous solutions such as 3D scanning or manual design, that scale poorly, and instead populate object category detection datasets semi-automatically with dense, per-object 3D reconstructions, bootstrapped from:(i) class labels, (ii) ground truth figure-ground segmentations and (iii) a small set of keypoint annotations. Our proposed algorithm first estimates camera viewpoint using rigid structure-from-motion and then reconstructs object shapes by optimizing over visual hull proposals guided by loose within-class shape similarity assumptions. The visual hull sampling process attempts to intersect an object's projection cone with the cones of minimal subsets of other similar objects among those pictured from certain vantage points. We show that our method is able to produce convincing per-object 3D reconstructions and to accurately estimate cameras viewpoints on one of the most challenging existing object-category detection datasets, PASCAL VOC. We hope that our results will re-stimulate interest on joint object recognition and 3D reconstruction from a single image.
3D reconstruction from a single view image is a long-standing prob-lem in computer vision. Various methods based on different shape representations(such as point cloud or volumetric representations) have been proposed. However,the 3D shape reconstruction with fine details and complex structures are still chal-lenging and have not yet be solved. Thanks to the recent advance of the deepshape representations, it becomes promising to learn the structure and detail rep-resentation using deep neural networks. In this paper, we propose a novel methodcalled STD-Net to reconstruct the 3D models utilizing the mesh representationthat is well suitable for characterizing complex structure and geometry details.To reconstruct complex 3D mesh models with fine details, our method consists of(1) an auto-encoder network for recovering the structure of an object with bound-ing box representation from a single image, (2) a topology-adaptive graph CNNfor updating vertex position for meshes of complex topology, and (3) an unifiedmesh deformation block that deforms the structural boxes into structure-awaremeshed models. Experimental results on the images from ShapeNet show that ourproposed STD-Net has better performance than other state-of-the-art methods onreconstructing 3D objects with complex structures and fine geometric details.
Understanding the 3D world is a fundamental problem in computer vision. However, learning a good representation of 3D objects is still an open problem due to the high dimensionality of the data and many factors of variation involved. In this work, we investigate the task of single-view 3D object reconstruction from a learning agent's perspective. We formulate the learning process as an interaction between 3D and 2D representations and propose an encoder-decoder network with a novel projection loss defined by the perspective transformation. More importantly, the projection loss enables the unsupervised learning using 2D observation without explicit 3D supervision. We demonstrate the ability of the model in generating 3D volume from a single 2D image with three sets of experiments: (1) learning from single-class objects; (2) learning from multi-class objects and (3) testing on novel object classes. Results show superior performance and better generalization ability for 3D object reconstruction when the projection loss is involved.
While recent deep neural networks have achieved promising results for 3D reconstruction from a single-view image, these rely on the availability of RGB textures in images and extra information as supervision. In this work, we propose novel stacked hierarchical networks and an end to end training strategy to tackle a more challenging task for the first time, 3D reconstruction from a single-view 2D silhouette image. We demonstrate that our model is able to conduct 3D reconstruction from a single-view silhouette image both qualitatively and quantitatively. Evaluation is performed using Shapenet for the single-view reconstruction and results are presented in comparison with a single network, to highlight the improvements obtained with the proposed stacked networks and the end to end training strategy. Furthermore, 3D re- construction in forms of IoU is compared with the state of art 3D reconstruction from a single-view RGB image, and the proposed model achieves higher IoU than the state of art of reconstruction from a single view RGB image.
We show that generative models can be used to capture visual geometry constraints statistically. We use this fact to infer the 3D shape of object categories from raw single-view images. Differently from prior work, we use no external supervision, nor do we use multiple views or videos of the objects. We achieve this by a simple reconstruction task, exploiting the symmetry of the objects' shape and albedo. Specifically, given a single image of the object seen from an arbitrary viewpoint, our model predicts a symmetric canonical view, the corresponding 3D shape and a viewpoint transformation, and trains with the goal of reconstructing the input view, resembling an auto-encoder. Our experiments show that this method can recover the 3D shape of human faces, cat faces, and cars from single view images, without supervision. On benchmarks, we demonstrate superior accuracy compared to other methods that use supervision at the level of 2D image correspondences.
Differentiable rendering is a very successful technique that applies to a Single-View 3D Reconstruction. Current renderers use losses based on pixels between a rendered image of some 3D reconstructed object and ground-truth images from given matched viewpoints to optimise parameters of the 3D shape. These models require a rendering step, along with visibility handling and evaluation of the shading model. The main goal of this paper is to demonstrate that we can avoid these steps and still get reconstruction results as other state-of-the-art models that are equal or even better than existing category-specific reconstruction methods. First, we use the same CNN architecture for the prediction of a point cloud shape and pose prediction like the one used by Insafutdinov \& Dosovitskiy. Secondly, we propose the novel effective loss function that evaluates how well the projections of reconstructed 3D point clouds cover the ground truth object's silhouette. Then we use Poisson Surface Reconstruction to transform the reconstructed point cloud into a 3D mesh. Finally, we perform a GAN-based texture mapping on a particular 3D mesh and produce a textured 3D mesh from a single 2D image. We evaluate our method on different datasets (including ShapeNet, CUB-200-2011, and Pascal3D+) and achieve state-of-the-art results, outperforming all the other supervised and unsupervised methods and 3D representations, all in terms of performance, accuracy, and training time.
Recent advancements in deep learning opened new opportunities for learning a high-quality 3D model from a single 2D image given sufficient training on large-scale data sets. However, the significant imbalance between available amount of images and 3D models, and the limited availability of labeled 2D image data (i.e. manually annotated pairs between images and their corresponding 3D models), severely impacts the training of most supervised deep learning methods in practice. In this paper, driven by a novel design of adversarial networks, we have developed an unsupervised learning paradigm to reconstruct 3D models from a single 2D image, which is free of manually annotated pairwise input image and its associated 3D model. Particularly, the paradigm begins with training an adaption network via autoencoder with adversarial loss, which embeds unpaired 2D synthesized image domain with real world image domain to a shared latent vector space. Then, we jointly train a 3D deconvolutional network to transform the latent vector space to the 3D object space together with the embedding process. Our experiments verify our network's robust and superior performance in handling 3D volumetric object generation from a single 2D image.
Recovering the 3D representation of an object from single-view or multi-view RGB images by deep neural networks has attracted increasing attention in the past few years. Several mainstream works (e.g., 3D-R2N2) use recurrent neural networks (RNNs) to fuse multiple feature maps extracted from input images sequentially. However, when given the same set of input images with different orders, RNN-based approaches are unable to produce consistent reconstruction results. Moreover, due to long-term memory loss, RNNs cannot fully exploit input images to refine reconstruction results. To solve these problems, we propose a novel framework for single-view and multi-view 3D reconstruction, named Pix2Vox. By using a well-designed encoder-decoder, it generates a coarse 3D volume from each input image. Then, a context-aware fusion module is introduced to adaptively select high-quality reconstructions for each part (e.g., table legs) from different coarse 3D volumes to obtain a fused 3D volume. Finally, a refiner further refines the fused 3D volume to generate the final output. Experimental results on the ShapeNet and Pascal 3D+ benchmarks indicate that the proposed Pix2Vox outperforms state-of-the-arts by a large margin. Furthermore, the proposed method is 24 times faster than 3D-R2N2 in terms of backward inference time. The experiments on ShapeNet unseen 3D categories have shown the superior generalization abilities of our method.
An emerging problem in computer vision is the reconstruction of 3D shape and pose of an object from a single image. Hitherto, the problem has been addressed through the application of canonical deep learning methods to regress from the image directly to the 3D shape and pose labels. These approaches, however, are problematic from two perspectives. First, they are minimizing the error between 3D shapes and pose labels - with little thought about the nature of this label error when reprojecting the shape back onto the image. Second, they rely on the onerous and ill-posed task of hand labeling natural images with respect to 3D shape and pose. In this paper we define the new task of pose-aware shape reconstruction from a single image, and we advocate that cheaper 2D annotations of objects silhouettes in natural images can be utilized. We design architectures of pose-aware shape reconstruction which re-project the predicted shape back on to the image using the predicted pose. Our evaluation on several object categories demonstrates the superiority of our method for predicting pose-aware 3D shapes from natural images.
Reconstructing human shape and pose from a single image is a challenging problem due to issues like severe self-occlusions, clothing variations, and changes in lighting to name a few. Many applications in the entertainment industry, e-commerce, health-care (physiotherapy), and mobile-based AR/VR platforms can benefit from recovering the 3D human shape, pose, and texture. In this paper, we present PeelNet, an end-to-end generative adversarial framework to tackle the problem of textured 3D reconstruction of the human body from a single RGB image. Motivated by ray tracing for generating realistic images of a 3D scene, we tackle this problem by representing the human body as a set of peeled depth and RGB maps which are obtained by extending rays beyond the first intersection with the 3D object. This formulation allows us to handle self-occlusions efficiently. Current parametric model-based approaches fail to model loose clothing and surface-level details and are proposed for the underlying naked human body. Majority of non-parametric approaches are either computationally expensive or provide unsatisfactory results. We present a simple non-parametric solution where the peeled maps are generated from a single RGB image as input. Our proposed peeled depth maps are back-projected to 3D volume to obtain a complete 3D shape. The corresponding RGB maps provide vertex-level texture details. We compare our method against current state-of-the-art methods in 3D reconstruction and demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on BUFF and MonoPerfCap datasets.