Inferring 3D locations and shapes of multiple objects from a single 2D image is a long-standing objective of computer vision. Most of the existing works either predict one of these 3D properties or focus on solving both for a single object. One fundamental challenge lies in how to learn an effective representation of the image that is well-suited for 3D detection and reconstruction. In this work, we propose to learn a regular grid of 3D voxel features from the input image which is aligned with 3D scene space via a 3D feature lifting operator. Based on the 3D voxel features, our novel CenterNet-3D detection head formulates the 3D detection as keypoint detection in the 3D space. Moreover, we devise an efficient coarse-to-fine reconstruction module, including coarse-level voxelization and a novel local PCA-SDF shape representation, which enables fine detail reconstruction and one order of magnitude faster inference than prior methods. With complementary supervision from both 3D detection and reconstruction, one enables the 3D voxel features to be geometry and context preserving, benefiting both tasks.The effectiveness of our approach is demonstrated through 3D detection and reconstruction in single object and multiple object scenarios.
Advances in deep learning techniques have allowed recent work to reconstruct the shape of a single object given only one RBG image as input. Building on common encoder-decoder architectures for this task, we propose three extensions: (1) ray-traced skip connections that propagate local 2D information to the output 3D volume in a physically correct manner; (2) a hybrid 3D volume representation that enables building translation equivariant models, while at the same time encoding fine object details without an excessive memory footprint; (3) a reconstruction loss tailored to capture overall object geometry. Furthermore, we adapt our model to address the harder task of reconstructing multiple objects from a single image. We reconstruct all objects jointly in one pass, producing a coherent reconstruction, where all objects live in a single consistent 3D coordinate frame relative to the camera and they do not intersect in 3D space. We also handle occlusions and resolve them by hallucinating the missing object parts in the 3D volume. We validate the impact of our contributions experimentally both on synthetic data from ShapeNet as well as real images from Pix3D. Our method outperforms the state-of-the-art single-object methods on both datasets. Finally, we evaluate performance quantitatively on multiple object reconstruction with synthetic scenes assembled from ShapeNet objects.
Much progress has been made in the supervised learning of 3D reconstruction of rigid objects from multi-view images or a video. However, it is more challenging to reconstruct severely deformed objects from a single-view RGB image in an unsupervised manner. Although training-based methods, such as specific category-level training, have been shown to successfully reconstruct rigid objects and slightly deformed objects like birds from a single-view image, they cannot effectively handle severely deformed objects and neither can be applied to some downstream tasks in the real world due to the inconsistent semantic meaning of vertices, which are crucial in defining the adopted 3D templates of objects to be reconstructed. In this work, we introduce a template-based method to infer 3D shapes from a single-view image and apply the reconstructed mesh to a downstream task, i.e., absolute length measurement. Without using 3D ground truth, our method faithfully reconstructs 3D meshes and achieves state-of-the-art accuracy in a length measurement task on a severely deformed fish dataset.
We propose a method to detect and reconstruct multiple 3D objects from a single RGB image. The key idea is to optimize for detection, alignment and shape jointly over all objects in the RGB image, while focusing on realistic and physically plausible reconstructions. To this end, we propose a keypoint detector that localizes objects as center points and directly predicts all object properties, including 9-DoF bounding boxes and 3D shapes -- all in a single forward pass. The proposed method formulates 3D shape reconstruction as a shape selection problem, i.e. it selects among exemplar shapes from a given database. This makes it agnostic to shape representations, which enables a lightweight reconstruction of realistic and visually-pleasing shapes based on CAD-models, while the training objective is formulated around point clouds and voxel representations. A collision-loss promotes non-intersecting objects, further increasing the reconstruction realism. Given the RGB image, the presented approach performs lightweight reconstruction in a single-stage, it is real-time capable, fully differentiable and end-to-end trainable. Our experiments compare multiple approaches for 9-DoF bounding box estimation, evaluate the novel shape-selection mechanism and compare to recent methods in terms of 3D bounding box estimation and 3D shape reconstruction quality.
Recovering the 3D structure of an object from a single image is a challenging task due to its ill-posed nature. One approach is to utilize the plentiful photos of the same object category to learn a strong 3D shape prior for the object. This approach has successfully been demonstrated by a recent work of Wu et al. (2020), which obtained impressive 3D reconstruction networks with unsupervised learning. However, their algorithm is only applicable to symmetric objects. In this paper, we eliminate the symmetry requirement with a novel unsupervised algorithm that can learn a 3D reconstruction network from a multi-image dataset. Our algorithm is more general and covers the symmetry-required scenario as a special case. Besides, we employ a novel albedo loss that improves the reconstructed details and realisticity. Our method surpasses the previous work in both quality and robustness, as shown in experiments on datasets of various structures, including single-view, multi-view, image-collection, and video sets.
Inspired by the recent success of methods that employ shape priors to achieve robust 3D reconstructions, we propose a novel recurrent neural network architecture that we call the 3D Recurrent Reconstruction Neural Network (3D-R2N2). The network learns a mapping from images of objects to their underlying 3D shapes from a large collection of synthetic data. Our network takes in one or more images of an object instance from arbitrary viewpoints and outputs a reconstruction of the object in the form of a 3D occupancy grid. Unlike most of the previous works, our network does not require any image annotations or object class labels for training or testing. Our extensive experimental analysis shows that our reconstruction framework i) outperforms the state-of-the-art methods for single view reconstruction, and ii) enables the 3D reconstruction of objects in situations when traditional SFM/SLAM methods fail (because of lack of texture and/or wide baseline).
Recovering the 3D shape of an object from single or multiple images with deep neural networks has been attracting increasing attention in the past few years. Mainstream works (e.g. 3D-R2N2) use recurrent neural networks (RNNs) to sequentially fuse feature maps of input images. However, RNN-based approaches are unable to produce consistent reconstruction results when given the same input images with different orders. Moreover, RNNs may forget important features from early input images due to long-term memory loss. To address these issues, we propose a novel framework for single-view and multi-view 3D object reconstruction, named Pix2Vox++. By using a well-designed encoder-decoder, it generates a coarse 3D volume from each input image. A multi-scale context-aware fusion module is then introduced to adaptively select high-quality reconstructions for different parts from all coarse 3D volumes to obtain a fused 3D volume. To further correct the wrongly recovered parts in the fused 3D volume, a refiner is adopted to generate the final output. Experimental results on the ShapeNet, Pix3D, and Things3D benchmarks show that Pix2Vox++ performs favorably against state-of-the-art methods in terms of both accuracy and efficiency.
3D reconstruction from a single RGB image is a challenging problem in computer vision. Previous methods are usually solely data-driven, which lead to inaccurate 3D shape recovery and limited generalization capability. In this work, we focus on object-level 3D reconstruction and present a geometry-based end-to-end deep learning framework that first detects the mirror plane of reflection symmetry that commonly exists in man-made objects and then predicts depth maps by finding the intra-image pixel-wise correspondence of the symmetry. Our method fully utilizes the geometric cues from symmetry during the test time by building plane-sweep cost volumes, a powerful tool that has been used in multi-view stereopsis. To our knowledge, this is the first work that uses the concept of cost volumes in the setting of single-image 3D reconstruction. We conduct extensive experiments on the ShapeNet dataset and find that our reconstruction method significantly outperforms the previous state-of-the-art single-view 3D reconstruction networks in term of the accuracy of camera poses and depth maps, without requiring objects being completely symmetric. Code is available at https://github.com/zhou13/symmetrynet.
3D object reconstruction is a fundamental task of many robotics and AI problems. With the aid of deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs), 3D object reconstruction has witnessed a significant progress in recent years. However, possibly due to the prohibitively high dimension of the 3D object space, the results from deep CNNs are often prone to missing some shape details. In this paper, we present an approach which aims to preserve more shape details and improve the reconstruction quality. The key idea of our method is to leverage object mask and pose estimation from CNNs to assist the 3D shape learning by constructing a probabilistic single-view visual hull inside of the network. Our method works by first predicting a coarse shape as well as the object pose and silhouette using CNNs, followed by a novel 3D refinement CNN which refines the coarse shapes using the constructed probabilistic visual hulls. Experiment on both synthetic data and real images show that embedding a single-view visual hull for shape refinement can significantly improve the reconstruction quality by recovering more shapes details and improving shape consistency with the input image.