Gaussian denoising has emerged as a powerful principle for constructing simulation-free continuous normalizing flows for generative modeling. Despite their empirical successes, theoretical properties of these flows and the regularizing effect of Gaussian denoising have remained largely unexplored. In this work, we aim to address this gap by investigating the well-posedness of simulation-free continuous normalizing flows built on Gaussian denoising. Through a unified framework termed Gaussian interpolation flow, we establish the Lipschitz regularity of the flow velocity field, the existence and uniqueness of the flow, and the Lipschitz continuity of the flow map and the time-reversed flow map for several rich classes of target distributions. This analysis also sheds light on the auto-encoding and cycle-consistency properties of Gaussian interpolation flows. Additionally, we delve into the stability of these flows in source distributions and perturbations of the velocity field, using the quadratic Wasserstein distance as a metric. Our findings offer valuable insights into the learning techniques employed in Gaussian interpolation flows for generative modeling, providing a solid theoretical foundation for end-to-end error analyses of learning GIFs with empirical observations.
Modern distributed training relies heavily on communication compression to reduce the communication overhead. In this work, we study algorithms employing a popular class of contractive compressors in order to reduce communication overhead. However, the naive implementation often leads to unstable convergence or even exponential divergence due to the compression bias. Error Compensation (EC) is an extremely popular mechanism to mitigate the aforementioned issues during the training of models enhanced by contractive compression operators. Compared to the effectiveness of EC in the data homogeneous regime, the understanding of the practicality and theoretical foundations of EC in the data heterogeneous regime is limited. Existing convergence analyses typically rely on strong assumptions such as bounded gradients, bounded data heterogeneity, or large batch accesses, which are often infeasible in modern machine learning applications. We resolve the majority of current issues by proposing EControl, a novel mechanism that can regulate error compensation by controlling the strength of the feedback signal. We prove fast convergence for EControl in standard strongly convex, general convex, and nonconvex settings without any additional assumptions on the problem or data heterogeneity. We conduct extensive numerical evaluations to illustrate the efficacy of our method and support our theoretical findings.
We propose Easy End-to-End Diffusion-based Text to Speech, a simple and efficient end-to-end text-to-speech model based on diffusion. E3 TTS directly takes plain text as input and generates an audio waveform through an iterative refinement process. Unlike many prior work, E3 TTS does not rely on any intermediate representations like spectrogram features or alignment information. Instead, E3 TTS models the temporal structure of the waveform through the diffusion process. Without relying on additional conditioning information, E3 TTS could support flexible latent structure within the given audio. This enables E3 TTS to be easily adapted for zero-shot tasks such as editing without any additional training. Experiments show that E3 TTS can generate high-fidelity audio, approaching the performance of a state-of-the-art neural TTS system. Audio samples are available at https://e3tts.github.io.
Real-time transportation surveillance is an essential part of the intelligent transportation system (ITS). However, images captured under low-light conditions often suffer the poor visibility with types of degradation, such as noise interference and vague edge features, etc. With the development of imaging devices, the quality of the visual surveillance data is continually increasing, like 2K and 4K, which has more strict requirements on the efficiency of image processing. To satisfy the requirements on both enhancement quality and computational speed, this paper proposes a double domain guided real-time low-light image enhancement network (DDNet) for ultra-high-definition (UHD) transportation surveillance. Specifically, we design an encoder-decoder structure as the main architecture of the learning network. In particular, the enhancement processing is divided into two subtasks (i.e., color enhancement and gradient enhancement) via the proposed coarse enhancement module (CEM) and LoG-based gradient enhancement module (GEM), which are embedded in the encoder-decoder structure. It enables the network to enhance the color and edge features simultaneously. Through the decomposition and reconstruction on both color and gradient domains, our DDNet can restore the detailed feature information concealed by the darkness with better visual quality and efficiency. The evaluation experiments on standard and transportation-related datasets demonstrate that our DDNet provides superior enhancement quality and efficiency compared with the state-of-the-art methods. Besides, the object detection and scene segmentation experiments indicate the practical benefits for higher-level image analysis under low-light environments in ITS.
The conventional Minimum Error Entropy criterion (MEE) has its limitations, showing reduced sensitivity to error mean values and uncertainty regarding error probability density function locations. To overcome this, a MEE with fiducial points criterion (MEEF), was presented. However, the efficacy of the MEEF is not consistent due to its reliance on a fixed Gaussian kernel. In this paper, a generalized minimum error with fiducial points criterion (GMEEF) is presented by adopting the Generalized Gaussian Density (GGD) function as kernel. The GGD extends the Gaussian distribution by introducing a shape parameter that provides more control over the tail behavior and peakedness. In addition, due to the high computational complexity of GMEEF criterion, the quantized idea is introduced to notably lower the computational load of the GMEEF-type algorithm. Finally, the proposed criterions are introduced to the domains of adaptive filter, kernel recursive algorithm, and multilayer perceptron. Several numerical simulations, which contain system identification, acoustic echo cancellation, times series prediction, and supervised classification, indicate that the novel algorithms' performance performs excellently.
Quantifying the performance bound of an integrated localization and communication (ILAC) system and the trade-off between communication and localization performance is critical. In this letter, we consider an ILAC system that can perform communication and localization via time-domain or frequency-domain resource allocation. We develop an analytical framework to derive the closed-form expression of the capacity loss versus localization Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRB) loss via time-domain and frequency-domain resource allocation. Simulation results validate the analytical model and demonstrate that frequency-domain resource allocation is preferable in scenarios with a smaller number of antennas at the next generation nodeB (gNB) and a larger distance between user equipment (UE) and gNB, while time-domain resource allocation is preferable in scenarios with a larger number of antennas and smaller distance between UE and the gNB.
The recent release of very large language models such as PaLM and GPT-4 has made an unprecedented impact in the popular media and public consciousness, giving rise to a mixture of excitement and fear as to their capabilities and potential uses, and shining a light on natural language processing research which had not previously received so much attention. The developments offer great promise for education technology, and in this paper we look specifically at the potential for incorporating large language models in AI-driven language teaching and assessment systems. We consider several research areas and also discuss the risks and ethical considerations surrounding generative AI in education technology for language learners. Overall we find that larger language models offer improvements over previous models in text generation, opening up routes toward content generation which had not previously been plausible. For text generation they must be prompted carefully and their outputs may need to be reshaped before they are ready for use. For automated grading and grammatical error correction, tasks whose progress is checked on well-known benchmarks, early investigations indicate that large language models on their own do not improve on state-of-the-art results according to standard evaluation metrics. For grading it appears that linguistic features established in the literature should still be used for best performance, and for error correction it may be that the models can offer alternative feedback styles which are not measured sensitively with existing methods. In all cases, there is work to be done to experiment with the inclusion of large language models in education technology for language learners, in order to properly understand and report on their capacities and limitations, and to ensure that foreseeable risks such as misinformation and harmful bias are mitigated.
Skin diseases are among the most prevalent health issues, and accurate computer-aided diagnosis methods are of importance for both dermatologists and patients. However, most of the existing methods overlook the essential domain knowledge required for skin disease diagnosis. A novel multi-task model, namely DermImitFormer, is proposed to fill this gap by imitating dermatologists' diagnostic procedures and strategies. Through multi-task learning, the model simultaneously predicts body parts and lesion attributes in addition to the disease itself, enhancing diagnosis accuracy and improving diagnosis interpretability. The designed lesion selection module mimics dermatologists' zoom-in action, effectively highlighting the local lesion features from noisy backgrounds. Additionally, the presented cross-interaction module explicitly models the complicated diagnostic reasoning between body parts, lesion attributes, and diseases. To provide a more robust evaluation of the proposed method, a large-scale clinical image dataset of skin diseases with significantly more cases than existing datasets has been established. Extensive experiments on three different datasets consistently demonstrate the state-of-the-art recognition performance of the proposed approach.
Liver tumor segmentation and classification are important tasks in computer aided diagnosis. We aim to address three problems: liver tumor screening and preliminary diagnosis in non-contrast computed tomography (CT), and differential diagnosis in dynamic contrast-enhanced CT. A novel framework named Pixel-Lesion-pAtient Network (PLAN) is proposed. It uses a mask transformer to jointly segment and classify each lesion with improved anchor queries and a foreground-enhanced sampling loss. It also has an image-wise classifier to effectively aggregate global information and predict patient-level diagnosis. A large-scale multi-phase dataset is collected containing 939 tumor patients and 810 normal subjects. 4010 tumor instances of eight types are extensively annotated. On the non-contrast tumor screening task, PLAN achieves 95% and 96% in patient-level sensitivity and specificity. On contrast-enhanced CT, our lesion-level detection precision, recall, and classification accuracy are 92%, 89%, and 86%, outperforming widely used CNN and transformers for lesion segmentation. We also conduct a reader study on a holdout set of 250 cases. PLAN is on par with a senior human radiologist, showing the clinical significance of our results.
Asymmetry is a crucial characteristic of bilateral mammograms (Bi-MG) when abnormalities are developing. It is widely utilized by radiologists for diagnosis. The question of 'what the symmetrical Bi-MG would look like when the asymmetrical abnormalities have been removed ?' has not yet received strong attention in the development of algorithms on mammograms. Addressing this question could provide valuable insights into mammographic anatomy and aid in diagnostic interpretation. Hence, we propose a novel framework, DisAsymNet, which utilizes asymmetrical abnormality transformer guided self-adversarial learning for disentangling abnormalities and symmetric Bi-MG. At the same time, our proposed method is partially guided by randomly synthesized abnormalities. We conduct experiments on three public and one in-house dataset, and demonstrate that our method outperforms existing methods in abnormality classification, segmentation, and localization tasks. Additionally, reconstructed normal mammograms can provide insights toward better interpretable visual cues for clinical diagnosis. The code will be accessible to the public.