Accurately estimating the 3D pose and shape is an essential step towards understanding animal behavior, and can potentially benefit many downstream applications, such as wildlife conservation. However, research in this area is held back by the lack of a comprehensive and diverse dataset with high-quality 3D pose and shape annotations. In this paper, we propose Animal3D, the first comprehensive dataset for mammal animal 3D pose and shape estimation. Animal3D consists of 3379 images collected from 40 mammal species, high-quality annotations of 26 keypoints, and importantly the pose and shape parameters of the SMAL model. All annotations were labeled and checked manually in a multi-stage process to ensure highest quality results. Based on the Animal3D dataset, we benchmark representative shape and pose estimation models at: (1) supervised learning from only the Animal3D data, (2) synthetic to real transfer from synthetically generated images, and (3) fine-tuning human pose and shape estimation models. Our experimental results demonstrate that predicting the 3D shape and pose of animals across species remains a very challenging task, despite significant advances in human pose estimation. Our results further demonstrate that synthetic pre-training is a viable strategy to boost the model performance. Overall, Animal3D opens new directions for facilitating future research in animal 3D pose and shape estimation, and is publicly available.
Most existing forecasting systems are memory-based methods, which attempt to mimic human forecasting ability by employing various memory mechanisms and have progressed in temporal modeling for memory dependency. Nevertheless, an obvious weakness of this paradigm is that it can only model limited historical dependence and can not transcend the past. In this paper, we rethink the temporal dependence of event evolution and propose a novel memory-anticipation-based paradigm to model an entire temporal structure, including the past, present, and future. Based on this idea, we present Memory-and-Anticipation Transformer (MAT), a memory-anticipation-based approach, to address the online action detection and anticipation tasks. In addition, owing to the inherent superiority of MAT, it can process online action detection and anticipation tasks in a unified manner. The proposed MAT model is tested on four challenging benchmarks TVSeries, THUMOS'14, HDD, and EPIC-Kitchens-100, for online action detection and anticipation tasks, and it significantly outperforms all existing methods. Code is available at https://github.com/Echo0125/Memory-and-Anticipation-Transformer.
The 4D millimeter-wave (mmWave) radar, capable of measuring the range, azimuth, elevation, and velocity of targets, has attracted considerable interest in the autonomous driving community. This is attributed to its robustness in extreme environments and outstanding velocity and elevation measurement capabilities. However, despite the rapid development of research related to its sensing theory and application, there is a notable lack of surveys on the topic of 4D mmWave radar. To address this gap and foster future research in this area, this paper presents a comprehensive survey on the use of 4D mmWave radar in autonomous driving. Reviews on the theoretical background and progress of 4D mmWave radars are presented first, including the signal processing flow, resolution improvement ways, extrinsic calibration process, and point cloud generation methods. Then it introduces related datasets and application algorithms in autonomous driving perception and localization and mapping tasks. Finally, this paper concludes by predicting future trends in the field of 4D mmWave radar. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first survey specifically for the 4D mmWave radar.
Diffusion models have emerged as a powerful method of generative modeling across a range of fields, capable of producing stunning photo-realistic images from natural language descriptions. However, these models lack explicit control over the 3D structure of the objects in the generated images. In this paper, we propose a novel method that incorporates 3D geometry control into diffusion models, making them generate even more realistic and diverse images. To achieve this, our method exploits ControlNet, which extends diffusion models by using visual prompts in addition to text prompts. We generate images of 3D objects taken from a 3D shape repository (e.g., ShapeNet and Objaverse), render them from a variety of poses and viewing directions, compute the edge maps of the rendered images, and use these edge maps as visual prompts to generate realistic images. With explicit 3D geometry control, we can easily change the 3D structures of the objects in the generated images and obtain ground-truth 3D annotations automatically. This allows us to use the generated images to improve a lot of vision tasks, e.g., classification and 3D pose estimation, in both in-distribution (ID) and out-of-distribution (OOD) settings. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method through extensive experiments on ImageNet-50, ImageNet-R, PASCAL3D+, ObjectNet3D, and OOD-CV datasets. The results show that our method significantly outperforms existing methods across multiple benchmarks (e.g., 4.6 percentage points on ImageNet-50 using ViT and 3.5 percentage points on PASCAL3D+ and ObjectNet3D using NeMo).
With the exponential growth of video data, there is an urgent need for automated technology to analyze and comprehend video content. However, existing video understanding models are often task-specific and lack a comprehensive capability of handling diverse tasks. The success of large language models (LLMs) like GPT has demonstrated their impressive abilities in sequence causal reasoning. Building upon this insight, we propose a novel framework called VideoLLM that leverages the sequence reasoning capabilities of pre-trained LLMs from natural language processing (NLP) for video sequence understanding. VideoLLM incorporates a carefully designed Modality Encoder and Semantic Translator, which convert inputs from various modalities into a unified token sequence. This token sequence is then fed into a decoder-only LLM. Subsequently, with the aid of a simple task head, our VideoLLM yields an effective unified framework for different kinds of video understanding tasks. To evaluate the efficacy of VideoLLM, we conduct extensive experiments using multiple LLMs and fine-tuning methods. We evaluate our VideoLLM on eight tasks sourced from four different datasets. The experimental results demonstrate that the understanding and reasoning capabilities of LLMs can be effectively transferred to video understanding tasks. We release the code at https://github.com/cg1177/VideoLLM.
Enhancing the robustness of vision algorithms in real-world scenarios is challenging. One reason is that existing robustness benchmarks are limited, as they either rely on synthetic data or ignore the effects of individual nuisance factors. We introduce OOD-CV-v2, a benchmark dataset that includes out-of-distribution examples of 10 object categories in terms of pose, shape, texture, context and the weather conditions, and enables benchmarking of models for image classification, object detection, and 3D pose estimation. In addition to this novel dataset, we contribute extensive experiments using popular baseline methods, which reveal that: 1) Some nuisance factors have a much stronger negative effect on the performance compared to others, also depending on the vision task. 2) Current approaches to enhance robustness have only marginal effects, and can even reduce robustness. 3) We do not observe significant differences between convolutional and transformer architectures. We believe our dataset provides a rich test bed to study robustness and will help push forward research in this area. Our dataset can be accessed from http://www.ood-cv.org/challenge.html
This paper studies how to keep a vision backbone effective while removing token mixers in its basic building blocks. Token mixers, as self-attention for vision transformers (ViTs), are intended to perform information communication between different spatial tokens but suffer from considerable computational cost and latency. However, directly removing them will lead to an incomplete model structure prior, and thus brings a significant accuracy drop. To this end, we first develop an RepIdentityFormer base on the re-parameterizing idea, to study the token mixer free model architecture. And we then explore the improved learning paradigm to break the limitation of simple token mixer free backbone, and summarize the empirical practice into 5 guidelines. Equipped with the proposed optimization strategy, we are able to build an extremely simple vision backbone with encouraging performance, while enjoying the high efficiency during inference. Extensive experiments and ablative analysis also demonstrate that the inductive bias of network architecture, can be incorporated into simple network structure with appropriate optimization strategy. We hope this work can serve as a starting point for the exploration of optimization-driven efficient network design. Project page: https://techmonsterwang.github.io/RIFormer/.
Distilling high-accuracy Graph Neural Networks~(GNNs) to low-latency multilayer perceptrons~(MLPs) on graph tasks has become a hot research topic. However, MLPs rely exclusively on the node features and fail to capture the graph structural information. Previous methods address this issue by processing graph edges into extra inputs for MLPs, but such graph structures may be unavailable for various scenarios. To this end, we propose a Prototype-Guided Knowledge Distillation~(PGKD) method, which does not require graph edges~(edge-free) yet learns structure-aware MLPs. Specifically, we analyze the graph structural information in GNN teachers, and distill such information from GNNs to MLPs via prototypes in an edge-free setting. Experimental results on popular graph benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed PGKD.
In this report, we present our champion solutions to five tracks at Ego4D challenge. We leverage our developed InternVideo, a video foundation model, for five Ego4D tasks, including Moment Queries, Natural Language Queries, Future Hand Prediction, State Change Object Detection, and Short-term Object Interaction Anticipation. InternVideo-Ego4D is an effective paradigm to adapt the strong foundation model to the downstream ego-centric video understanding tasks with simple head designs. In these five tasks, the performance of InternVideo-Ego4D comprehensively surpasses the baseline methods and the champions of CVPR2022, demonstrating the powerful representation ability of InternVideo as a video foundation model. Our code will be released at https://github.com/OpenGVLab/ego4d-eccv2022-solutions