In an era of digital ubiquity, efficient resource management and decision-making are paramount across numerous industries. To this end, we present a comprehensive study on the integration of machine learning (ML) techniques into Huawei Cloud's OptVerse AI Solver, which aims to mitigate the scarcity of real-world mathematical programming instances, and to surpass the capabilities of traditional optimization techniques. We showcase our methods for generating complex SAT and MILP instances utilizing generative models that mirror multifaceted structures of real-world problem. Furthermore, we introduce a training framework leveraging augmentation policies to maintain solvers' utility in dynamic environments. Besides the data generation and augmentation, our proposed approaches also include novel ML-driven policies for personalized solver strategies, with an emphasis on applications like graph convolutional networks for initial basis selection and reinforcement learning for advanced presolving and cut selection. Additionally, we detail the incorporation of state-of-the-art parameter tuning algorithms which markedly elevate solver performance. Compared with traditional solvers such as Cplex and SCIP, our ML-augmented OptVerse AI Solver demonstrates superior speed and precision across both established benchmarks and real-world scenarios, reinforcing the practical imperative and effectiveness of machine learning techniques in mathematical programming solvers.
Occupancy prediction plays a pivotal role in the realm of autonomous driving. Previous methods typically constructs a dense 3D volume, neglecting the inherent sparsity of the scene, which results in a high computational cost. Furthermore, these methods are limited to semantic occupancy and fail to differentiate between distinct instances. To exploit the sparsity property and ensure instance-awareness, we introduce a novel fully sparse panoptic occupancy network, termed SparseOcc. SparseOcc initially reconstructs a sparse 3D representation from visual inputs. Subsequently, it employs sparse instance queries to predict each object instance from the sparse 3D representation. These instance queries interact with 2D features via mask-guided sparse sampling, thereby circumventing the need for costly dense features or global attention. Additionally, we have established the first-ever vision-centric panoptic occupancy benchmark. SparseOcc demonstrates its efficacy on the Occ3D-nus dataset by achieving a mean Intersection over Union (mIoU) of 26.0, while maintaining a real-time inference speed of 25.4 FPS. By incorporating temporal modeling from the preceding 8 frames, SparseOcc further improves its performance, achieving 30.9 mIoU without whistles and bells. Code will be made available.
With the continuous maturation and application of autonomous driving technology, a systematic examination of open-source autonomous driving datasets becomes instrumental in fostering the robust evolution of the industry ecosystem. Current autonomous driving datasets can broadly be categorized into two generations. The first-generation autonomous driving datasets are characterized by relatively simpler sensor modalities, smaller data scale, and is limited to perception-level tasks. KITTI, introduced in 2012, serves as a prominent representative of this initial wave. In contrast, the second-generation datasets exhibit heightened complexity in sensor modalities, greater data scale and diversity, and an expansion of tasks from perception to encompass prediction and control. Leading examples of the second generation include nuScenes and Waymo, introduced around 2019. This comprehensive review, conducted in collaboration with esteemed colleagues from both academia and industry, systematically assesses over seventy open-source autonomous driving datasets from domestic and international sources. It offers insights into various aspects, such as the principles underlying the creation of high-quality datasets, the pivotal role of data engine systems, and the utilization of generative foundation models to facilitate scalable data generation. Furthermore, this review undertakes an exhaustive analysis and discourse regarding the characteristics and data scales that future third-generation autonomous driving datasets should possess. It also delves into the scientific and technical challenges that warrant resolution. These endeavors are pivotal in advancing autonomous innovation and fostering technological enhancement in critical domains. For further details, please refer to https://github.com/OpenDriveLab/DriveAGI.
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Large-scale LP problems from industry usually contain much redundancy that severely hurts the efficiency and reliability of solving LPs, making presolve (i.e., the problem simplification module) one of the most critical components in modern LP solvers. However, how to design high-quality presolve routines -- that is, the program determining (P1) which presolvers to select, (P2) in what order to execute, and (P3) when to stop -- remains a highly challenging task due to the extensive requirements on expert knowledge and the large search space. Due to the sequential decision property of the task and the lack of expert demonstrations, we propose a simple and efficient reinforcement learning (RL) framework -- namely, reinforcement learning for presolve (RL4Presolve) -- to tackle (P1)-(P3) simultaneously. Specifically, we formulate the routine design task as a Markov decision process and propose an RL framework with adaptive action sequences to generate high-quality presolve routines efficiently. Note that adaptive action sequences help learn complex behaviors efficiently and adapt to various benchmarks. Experiments on two solvers (open-source and commercial) and eight benchmarks (real-world and synthetic) demonstrate that RL4Presolve significantly and consistently improves the efficiency of solving large-scale LPs, especially on benchmarks from industry. Furthermore, we optimize the hard-coded presolve routines in LP solvers by extracting rules from learned policies for simple and efficient deployment to Huawei's supply chain. The results show encouraging economic and academic potential for incorporating machine learning to modern solvers.
Multi-camera 3D object detection for autonomous driving is a challenging problem that has garnered notable attention from both academia and industry. An obstacle encountered in vision-based techniques involves the precise extraction of geometry-conscious features from RGB images. Recent approaches have utilized geometric-aware image backbones pretrained on depth-relevant tasks to acquire spatial information. However, these approaches overlook the critical aspect of view transformation, resulting in inadequate performance due to the misalignment of spatial knowledge between the image backbone and view transformation. To address this issue, we propose a novel geometric-aware pretraining framework called GAPretrain. Our approach incorporates spatial and structural cues to camera networks by employing the geometric-rich modality as guidance during the pretraining phase. The transference of modal-specific attributes across different modalities is non-trivial, but we bridge this gap by using a unified bird's-eye-view (BEV) representation and structural hints derived from LiDAR point clouds to facilitate the pretraining process. GAPretrain serves as a plug-and-play solution that can be flexibly applied to multiple state-of-the-art detectors. Our experiments demonstrate the effectiveness and generalization ability of the proposed method. We achieve 46.2 mAP and 55.5 NDS on the nuScenes val set using the BEVFormer method, with a gain of 2.7 and 2.1 points, respectively. We also conduct experiments on various image backbones and view transformations to validate the efficacy of our approach. Code will be released at https://github.com/OpenDriveLab/BEVPerception-Survey-Recipe.
Cutting planes (cuts) are important for solving mixed-integer linear programs (MILPs), which formulate a wide range of important real-world applications. Cut selection -- which aims to select a proper subset of the candidate cuts to improve the efficiency of solving MILPs -- heavily depends on (P1) which cuts should be preferred, and (P2) how many cuts should be selected. Although many modern MILP solvers tackle (P1)-(P2) by manually designed heuristics, machine learning offers a promising approach to learn more effective heuristics from MILPs collected from specific applications. However, many existing learning-based methods focus on learning which cuts should be preferred, neglecting the importance of learning the number of cuts that should be selected. Moreover, we observe from extensive empirical results that (P3) what order of selected cuts should be preferred has a significant impact on the efficiency of solving MILPs as well. To address this challenge, we propose a novel hierarchical sequence model (HEM) to learn cut selection policies via reinforcement learning. Specifically, HEM consists of a two-level model: (1) a higher-level model to learn the number of cuts that should be selected, (2) and a lower-level model -- that formulates the cut selection task as a sequence to sequence learning problem -- to learn policies selecting an ordered subset with the size determined by the higher-level model. To the best of our knowledge, HEM is the first method that can tackle (P1)-(P3) in cut selection simultaneously from a data-driven perspective. Experiments show that HEM significantly improves the efficiency of solving MILPs compared to human-designed and learning-based baselines on both synthetic and large-scale real-world MILPs, including MIPLIB 2017. Moreover, experiments demonstrate that HEM well generalizes to MILPs that are significantly larger than those seen during training.
Learning powerful representations in bird's-eye-view (BEV) for perception tasks is trending and drawing extensive attention both from industry and academia. Conventional approaches for most autonomous driving algorithms perform detection, segmentation, tracking, etc., in a front or perspective view. As sensor configurations get more complex, integrating multi-source information from different sensors and representing features in a unified view come of vital importance. BEV perception inherits several advantages, as representing surrounding scenes in BEV is intuitive and fusion-friendly; and representing objects in BEV is most desirable for subsequent modules as in planning and/or control. The core problems for BEV perception lie in (a) how to reconstruct the lost 3D information via view transformation from perspective view to BEV; (b) how to acquire ground truth annotations in BEV grid; (c) how to formulate the pipeline to incorporate features from different sources and views; and (d) how to adapt and generalize algorithms as sensor configurations vary across different scenarios. In this survey, we review the most recent work on BEV perception and provide an in-depth analysis of different solutions. Moreover, several systematic designs of BEV approach from the industry are depicted as well. Furthermore, we introduce a full suite of practical guidebook to improve the performance of BEV perception tasks, including camera, LiDAR and fusion inputs. At last, we point out the future research directions in this area. We hope this report would shed some light on the community and encourage more research effort on BEV perception. We keep an active repository to collect the most recent work and provide a toolbox for bag of tricks at https://github.com/OpenPerceptionX/BEVPerception-Survey-Recipe.
It has been verified that the linear programming (LP) is able to formulate many real-life optimization problems, which can obtain the optimum by resorting to corresponding solvers such as OptVerse, Gurobi and CPLEX. In the past decades, a serial of traditional operation research algorithms have been proposed to obtain the optimum of a given LP in a fewer solving time. Recently, there is a trend of using machine learning (ML) techniques to improve the performance of above solvers. However, almost no previous work takes advantage of ML techniques to improve the performance of solver from the front end, i.e., the modeling (or formulation). In this paper, we are the first to propose a reinforcement learning-based reformulation method for LP to improve the performance of solving process. Using an open-source solver COIN-OR LP (CLP) as an environment, we implement the proposed method over two public research LP datasets and one large-scale LP dataset collected from practical production planning scenario. The evaluation results suggest that the proposed method can effectively reduce both the solving iteration number ($25\%\downarrow$) and the solving time ($15\%\downarrow$) over above datasets in average, compared to directly solving the original LP instances.
Most combinatorial optimization problems can be formulated as mixed integer linear programming (MILP), in which branch-and-bound (B\&B) is a general and widely used method. Recently, learning to branch has become a hot research topic in the intersection of machine learning and combinatorial optimization. In this paper, we propose a novel reinforcement learning-based B\&B algorithm. Similar to offline reinforcement learning, we initially train on the demonstration data to accelerate learning massively. With the improvement of the training effect, the agent starts to interact with the environment with its learned policy gradually. It is critical to improve the performance of the algorithm by determining the mixing ratio between demonstration and self-generated data. Thus, we propose a prioritized storage mechanism to control this ratio automatically. In order to improve the robustness of the training process, a superior network is additionally introduced based on Double DQN, which always serves as a Q-network with competitive performance. We evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm over three public research benchmarks and compare it against strong baselines, including three classical heuristics and one state-of-the-art imitation learning-based branching algorithm. The results show that the proposed algorithm achieves the best performance among compared algorithms and possesses the potential to improve B\&B algorithm performance continuously.
Computer systems such as storage systems normally require transparent white-box algorithms that are interpretable for human experts. In this work, we propose a learning-aided heuristic design method, which automatically generates human-readable strategies from Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) agents. This method benefits from the power of deep learning but avoids the shortcoming of its black-box property. Besides the white-box advantage, experiments in our storage productions resource allocation scenario also show that this solution outperforms the systems default settings and the elaborately handcrafted strategy by human experts.