Automatic web navigation aims to build a web agent that can follow language instructions to execute complex and diverse tasks on real-world websites. Existing work primarily takes HTML documents as input, which define the contents and action spaces (i.e., actionable elements and operations) of webpages. Nevertheless, HTML documents may not provide a clear task-related context for each element, making it hard to select the right (sequence of) actions. In this paper, we propose to contextualize HTML elements through their "dual views" in webpage screenshots: each HTML element has its corresponding bounding box and visual content in the screenshot. We build upon the insight -- web developers tend to arrange task-related elements nearby on webpages to enhance user experiences -- and propose to contextualize each element with its neighbor elements, using both textual and visual features. The resulting representations of HTML elements are more informative for the agent to take action. We validate our method on the recently released Mind2Web dataset, which features diverse navigation domains and tasks on real-world websites. Our method consistently outperforms the baseline in all the scenarios, including cross-task, cross-website, and cross-domain ones.
Synthesizing high-fidelity and emotion-controllable talking video portraits, with audio-lip sync, vivid expression, realistic head pose, and eye blink, is an important and challenging task in recent years. Most of the existing methods suffer in achieving personalized precise emotion control or continuously interpolating between different emotions and generating diverse motion. To address these problems, we present GMTalker, a Gaussian mixture based emotional talking portraits generation framework. Specifically, we propose a Gaussian Mixture based Expression Generator (GMEG) which can construct a continuous and multi-modal latent space, achieving more flexible emotion manipulation. Furthermore, we introduce a normalizing flow based motion generator pretrained on the dataset with a wide-range motion to generate diverse motions. Finally, we propose a personalized emotion-guided head generator with an Emotion Mapping Network (EMN) which can synthesize high-fidelity and faithful emotional video portraits. Both quantitative and qualitative experiments demonstrate our method outperforms previous methods in image quality, photo-realism, emotion accuracy and motion diversity.
Multimodal Large Language Models (MLLMs) have endowed LLMs with the ability to perceive and understand multi-modal signals. However, most of the existing MLLMs mainly adopt vision encoders pretrained on coarsely aligned image-text pairs, leading to insufficient extraction and reasoning of visual knowledge. To address this issue, we devise a dual-Level vIsual knOwledge eNhanced Multimodal Large Language Model (LION), which empowers the MLLM by injecting visual knowledge in two levels. 1) Progressive incorporation of fine-grained spatial-aware visual knowledge. We design a vision aggregator cooperated with region-level vision-language (VL) tasks to incorporate fine-grained spatial-aware visual knowledge into the MLLM. To alleviate the conflict between image-level and region-level VL tasks during incorporation, we devise a dedicated stage-wise instruction-tuning strategy with mixture-of-adapters. This progressive incorporation scheme contributes to the mutual promotion between these two kinds of VL tasks. 2) Soft prompting of high-level semantic visual evidence. We facilitate the MLLM with high-level semantic visual evidence by leveraging diverse image tags. To mitigate the potential influence caused by imperfect predicted tags, we propose a soft prompting method by embedding a learnable token into the tailored text instruction. Comprehensive experiments on several multi-modal benchmarks demonstrate the superiority of our model (e.g., improvement of 5% accuracy on VSR and 3% CIDEr on TextCaps over InstructBLIP, 5% accuracy on RefCOCOg over Kosmos-2).
Large Language Models (LLMs) are becoming increasingly smart and autonomous, targeting real-world pragmatic missions beyond traditional NLP tasks. As a result, there has been an urgent need to evaluate LLMs as agents on challenging tasks in interactive environments. We present AgentBench, a multi-dimensional evolving benchmark that currently consists of 8 distinct environments to assess LLM-as-Agent's reasoning and decision-making abilities in a multi-turn open-ended generation setting. Our extensive test over 25 LLMs (including APIs and open-sourced models) shows that, while top commercial LLMs present a strong ability of acting as agents in complex environments, there is a significant disparity in performance between them and open-sourced competitors. It also serves as a component of an ongoing project with wider coverage and deeper consideration towards systematic LLM evaluation. Datasets, environments, and an integrated evaluation package for AgentBench are released at https://github.com/THUDM/AgentBench
We introduce TacoBot, a user-centered task-oriented digital assistant designed to guide users through complex real-world tasks with multiple steps. Covering a wide range of cooking and how-to tasks, we aim to deliver a collaborative and engaging dialogue experience. Equipped with language understanding, dialogue management, and response generation components supported by a robust search engine, TacoBot ensures efficient task assistance. To enhance the dialogue experience, we explore a series of data augmentation strategies using LLMs to train advanced neural models continuously. TacoBot builds upon our successful participation in the inaugural Alexa Prize TaskBot Challenge, where our team secured third place among ten competing teams. We offer TacoBot as an open-source framework that serves as a practical example for deploying task-oriented dialogue systems.
We introduce Mind2Web, the first dataset for developing and evaluating generalist agents for the web that can follow language instructions to complete complex tasks on any website. Existing datasets for web agents either use simulated websites or only cover a limited set of websites and tasks, thus not suitable for generalist web agents. With over 2,000 open-ended tasks collected from 137 websites spanning 31 domains and crowdsourced action sequences for the tasks, Mind2Web provides three necessary ingredients for building generalist web agents: 1) diverse domains, websites, and tasks, 2) use of real-world websites instead of simulated and simplified ones, and 3) a broad spectrum of user interaction patterns. Based on Mind2Web, we conduct an initial exploration of using large language models (LLMs) for building generalist web agents. While the raw HTML of real-world websites are often too large to be fed to LLMs, we show that first filtering it with a small LM significantly improves the effectiveness and efficiency of LLMs. Our solution demonstrates a decent level of performance, even on websites or entire domains the model has never seen before, but there is still a substantial room to improve towards truly generalizable agents. We open-source our dataset, model implementation, and trained models (https://osu-nlp-group.github.io/Mind2Web) to facilitate further research on building a generalist agent for the web.
Conventional supervised approaches for text-to-SQL parsing often require large amounts of annotated data, which is costly to obtain in practice. Recently, in-context learning with large language models (LLMs) has caught increasing attention due to its superior few-shot performance in a wide range of tasks. However, most attempts to use in-context learning for text-to-SQL parsing still lag behind supervised methods. We hypothesize that the under-performance is because text-to-SQL parsing requires complex, multi-step reasoning. In this paper, we systematically study how to enhance the reasoning ability of LLMs for text-to-SQL parsing through chain-of-thought (CoT) style promptings including CoT prompting and Least-to-Most prompting. Our experiments demonstrate that iterative prompting as in Least-to-Most prompting may be unnecessary for text-to-SQL parsing and directly applying existing CoT style prompting methods leads to error propagation issues. By improving multi-step reasoning while avoiding much detailed information in the reasoning steps which may lead to error propagation, our new method outperforms existing ones by 2.4 point absolute gains on the Spider development set.
Market sentiment analysis on social media content requires knowledge of both financial markets and social media jargon, which makes it a challenging task for human raters. The resulting lack of high-quality labeled data stands in the way of conventional supervised learning methods. Instead, we approach this problem using semi-supervised learning with a large language model (LLM). Our pipeline generates weak financial sentiment labels for Reddit posts with an LLM and then uses that data to train a small model that can be served in production. We find that prompting the LLM to produce Chain-of-Thought summaries and forcing it through several reasoning paths helps generate more stable and accurate labels, while using a regression loss further improves distillation quality. With only a handful of prompts, the final model performs on par with existing supervised models. Though production applications of our model are limited by ethical considerations, the model's competitive performance points to the great potential of using LLMs for tasks that otherwise require skill-intensive annotation.