The Mixture of Experts (MoE) for language models has been proven effective in augmenting the capacity of models by dynamically routing each input token to a specific subset of experts for processing. Despite the success, most existing methods face a challenge for balance between sparsity and the availability of expert knowledge: enhancing performance through increased use of expert knowledge often results in diminishing sparsity during expert selection. To mitigate this contradiction, we propose HyperMoE, a novel MoE framework built upon Hypernetworks. This framework integrates the computational processes of MoE with the concept of knowledge transferring in multi-task learning. Specific modules generated based on the information of unselected experts serve as supplementary information, which allows the knowledge of experts not selected to be used while maintaining selection sparsity. Our comprehensive empirical evaluations across multiple datasets and backbones establish that HyperMoE significantly outperforms existing MoE methods under identical conditions concerning the number of experts.
In this paper, we introduce a novel algorithm named Key Patch Proposer (KPP) designed to select key patches in an image without additional training. Our experiments showcase KPP's robust capacity to capture semantic information by both reconstruction and classification tasks. The efficacy of KPP suggests its potential application in active learning for semantic segmentation. Our source code is publicly available at https://github.com/CA-TT-AC/key-patch-proposer.
We introduce a novel approach to learn geometries such as depth and surface normal from images while incorporating geometric context. The difficulty of reliably capturing geometric context in existing methods impedes their ability to accurately enforce the consistency between the different geometric properties, thereby leading to a bottleneck of geometric estimation quality. We therefore propose the Adaptive Surface Normal (ASN) constraint, a simple yet efficient method. Our approach extracts geometric context that encodes the geometric variations present in the input image and correlates depth estimation with geometric constraints. By dynamically determining reliable local geometry from randomly sampled candidates, we establish a surface normal constraint, where the validity of these candidates is evaluated using the geometric context. Furthermore, our normal estimation leverages the geometric context to prioritize regions that exhibit significant geometric variations, which makes the predicted normals accurately capture intricate and detailed geometric information. Through the integration of geometric context, our method unifies depth and surface normal estimations within a cohesive framework, which enables the generation of high-quality 3D geometry from images. We validate the superiority of our approach over state-of-the-art methods through extensive evaluations and comparisons on diverse indoor and outdoor datasets, showcasing its efficiency and robustness.
* arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:2103.15483
Developing a generalist agent is a longstanding objective in artificial intelligence. Previous efforts utilizing extensive offline datasets from various tasks demonstrate remarkable performance in multitasking scenarios within Reinforcement Learning. However, these works encounter challenges in extending their capabilities to new tasks. Recent approaches integrate textual guidance or visual trajectory into decision networks to provide task-specific contextual cues, representing a promising direction. However, it is observed that relying solely on textual guidance or visual trajectory is insufficient for accurately conveying the contextual information of tasks. This paper explores enhanced forms of task guidance for agents, enabling them to comprehend gameplay instructions, thereby facilitating a "read-to-play" capability. Drawing inspiration from the success of multimodal instruction tuning in visual tasks, we treat the visual-based RL task as a long-horizon vision task and construct a set of multimodal game instructions to incorporate instruction tuning into a decision transformer. Experimental results demonstrate that incorporating multimodal game instructions significantly enhances the decision transformer's multitasking and generalization capabilities.
There is a consensus that instruction fine-tuning of LLMs requires high-quality data, but what are they? LIMA (NeurIPS 2023) and AlpaGasus (ICLR 2024) are state-of-the-art methods for selecting such high-quality examples, either via manual curation or using GPT-3.5-Turbo as a quality scorer. We show that the extremely simple baseline of selecting the 1,000 instructions with longest responses from standard datasets can consistently outperform these sophisticated methods according to GPT-4 and PaLM-2 as judges, while remaining competitive on the OpenLLM benchmarks that test factual knowledge. We demonstrate this for several state-of-the-art LLMs (Llama-2-7B, Llama-2-13B, and Mistral-7B) and datasets (Alpaca-52k and Evol-Instruct-70k). In addition, a lightweight refinement of such long instructions can further improve the abilities of the fine-tuned LLMs, and allows us to obtain the 2nd highest-ranked Llama-2-7B-based model on AlpacaEval 2.0 while training on only 1,000 examples and no extra preference data. We also conduct a thorough analysis of our models to ensure that their enhanced performance is not simply due to GPT-4's preference for longer responses, thus ruling out any artificial improvement. In conclusion, our findings suggest that fine-tuning on the longest instructions should be the default baseline for any research on instruction fine-tuning.
In the past several years, road anomaly segmentation is actively explored in the academia and drawing growing attention in the industry. The rationale behind is straightforward: if the autonomous car can brake before hitting an anomalous object, safety is promoted. However, this rationale naturally calls for a temporally informed setting while existing methods and benchmarks are designed in an unrealistic frame-wise manner. To bridge this gap, we contribute the first video anomaly segmentation dataset for autonomous driving. Since placing various anomalous objects on busy roads and annotating them in every frame are dangerous and expensive, we resort to synthetic data. To improve the relevance of this synthetic dataset to real-world applications, we train a generative adversarial network conditioned on rendering G-buffers for photorealism enhancement. Our dataset consists of 120,000 high-resolution frames at a 60 FPS framerate, as recorded in 7 different towns. As an initial benchmarking, we provide baselines using latest supervised and unsupervised road anomaly segmentation methods. Apart from conventional ones, we focus on two new metrics: temporal consistency and latencyaware streaming accuracy. We believe the latter is valuable as it measures whether an anomaly segmentation algorithm can truly prevent a car from crashing in a temporally informed setting.
Neural Radiance Field (NeRF) and its variants have recently emerged as successful methods for novel view synthesis and 3D scene reconstruction. However, most current NeRF models either achieve high accuracy using large model sizes, or achieve high memory-efficiency by trading off accuracy. This limits the applicable scope of any single model, since high-accuracy models might not fit in low-memory devices, and memory-efficient models might not satisfy high-quality requirements. To this end, we present SlimmeRF, a model that allows for instant test-time trade-offs between model size and accuracy through slimming, thus making the model simultaneously suitable for scenarios with different computing budgets. We achieve this through a newly proposed algorithm named Tensorial Rank Incrementation (TRaIn) which increases the rank of the model's tensorial representation gradually during training. We also observe that our model allows for more effective trade-offs in sparse-view scenarios, at times even achieving higher accuracy after being slimmed. We credit this to the fact that erroneous information such as floaters tend to be stored in components corresponding to higher ranks. Our implementation is available at https://github.com/Shiran-Yuan/SlimmeRF.
Change-point detection (CPD) is crucial for identifying abrupt shifts in data, which influence decision-making and efficient resource allocation across various domains. To address the challenges posed by the costly and time-intensive data acquisition in CPD, we introduce the Derivative-Aware Change Detection (DACD) method. It leverages the derivative process of a Gaussian process (GP) for Active Learning (AL), aiming to pinpoint change-point locations effectively. DACD balances the exploitation and exploration of derivative processes through multiple data acquisition functions (AFs). By utilizing GP derivative mean and variance as criteria, DACD sequentially selects the next sampling data point, thus enhancing algorithmic efficiency and ensuring reliable and accurate results. We investigate the effectiveness of DACD method in diverse scenarios and show it outperforms other active learning change-point detection approaches.
Achieving high synchronization in the synthesis of realistic, speech-driven talking head videos presents a significant challenge. Traditional Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) struggle to maintain consistent facial identity, while Neural Radiance Fields (NeRF) methods, although they can address this issue, often produce mismatched lip movements, inadequate facial expressions, and unstable head poses. A lifelike talking head requires synchronized coordination of subject identity, lip movements, facial expressions, and head poses. The absence of these synchronizations is a fundamental flaw, leading to unrealistic and artificial outcomes. To address the critical issue of synchronization, identified as the "devil" in creating realistic talking heads, we introduce SyncTalk. This NeRF-based method effectively maintains subject identity, enhancing synchronization and realism in talking head synthesis. SyncTalk employs a Face-Sync Controller to align lip movements with speech and innovatively uses a 3D facial blendshape model to capture accurate facial expressions. Our Head-Sync Stabilizer optimizes head poses, achieving more natural head movements. The Portrait-Sync Generator restores hair details and blends the generated head with the torso for a seamless visual experience. Extensive experiments and user studies demonstrate that SyncTalk outperforms state-of-the-art methods in synchronization and realism. We recommend watching the supplementary video: https://ziqiaopeng.github.io/synctalk