The age of social media is flooded with Internet memes, necessitating a clear grasp and effective identification of harmful ones. This task presents a significant challenge due to the implicit meaning embedded in memes, which is not explicitly conveyed through the surface text and image. However, existing harmful meme detection methods do not present readable explanations that unveil such implicit meaning to support their detection decisions. In this paper, we propose an explainable approach to detect harmful memes, achieved through reasoning over conflicting rationales from both harmless and harmful positions. Specifically, inspired by the powerful capacity of Large Language Models (LLMs) on text generation and reasoning, we first elicit multimodal debate between LLMs to generate the explanations derived from the contradictory arguments. Then we propose to fine-tune a small language model as the debate judge for harmfulness inference, to facilitate multimodal fusion between the harmfulness rationales and the intrinsic multimodal information within memes. In this way, our model is empowered to perform dialectical reasoning over intricate and implicit harm-indicative patterns, utilizing multimodal explanations originating from both harmless and harmful arguments. Extensive experiments on three public meme datasets demonstrate that our harmful meme detection approach achieves much better performance than state-of-the-art methods and exhibits a superior capacity for explaining the meme harmfulness of the model predictions.
* The ACM Web Conference 2024 * The first work towards explainable harmful meme detection by
harnessing advanced LLMs
The exponential growth of social media has profoundly transformed how information is created, disseminated, and absorbed, exceeding any precedent in the digital age. Regrettably, this explosion has also spawned a significant increase in the online abuse of memes. Evaluating the negative impact of memes is notably challenging, owing to their often subtle and implicit meanings, which are not directly conveyed through the overt text and imagery. In light of this, large multimodal models (LMMs) have emerged as a focal point of interest due to their remarkable capabilities in handling diverse multimodal tasks. In response to this development, our paper aims to thoroughly examine the capacity of various LMMs (e.g. GPT-4V) to discern and respond to the nuanced aspects of social abuse manifested in memes. We introduce the comprehensive meme benchmark, GOAT-Bench, comprising over 6K varied memes encapsulating themes such as implicit hate speech, sexism, and cyberbullying, etc. Utilizing GOAT-Bench, we delve into the ability of LMMs to accurately assess hatefulness, misogyny, offensiveness, sarcasm, and harmful content. Our extensive experiments across a range of LMMs reveal that current models still exhibit a deficiency in safety awareness, showing insensitivity to various forms of implicit abuse. We posit that this shortfall represents a critical impediment to the realization of safe artificial intelligence. The GOAT-Bench and accompanying resources are publicly accessible at https://goatlmm.github.io/, contributing to ongoing research in this vital field.
The age of social media is rife with memes. Understanding and detecting harmful memes pose a significant challenge due to their implicit meaning that is not explicitly conveyed through the surface text and image. However, existing harmful meme detection approaches only recognize superficial harm-indicative signals in an end-to-end classification manner but ignore in-depth cognition of the meme text and image. In this paper, we attempt to detect harmful memes based on advanced reasoning over the interplay of multimodal information in memes. Inspired by the success of Large Language Models (LLMs) on complex reasoning, we first conduct abductive reasoning with LLMs. Then we propose a novel generative framework to learn reasonable thoughts from LLMs for better multimodal fusion and lightweight fine-tuning, which consists of two training stages: 1) Distill multimodal reasoning knowledge from LLMs; and 2) Fine-tune the generative framework to infer harmfulness. Extensive experiments conducted on three meme datasets demonstrate that our proposed approach achieves superior performance than state-of-the-art methods on the harmful meme detection task.
* The 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language
Processing * The first work to alleviate the issue of superficial understanding
for harmful meme detection by explicitly utilizing commonsense knowledge,
from a fresh perspective on harnessing advanced Large Language Models
Salient object detection (SOD) and camouflaged object detection (COD) are related yet distinct binary mapping tasks. These tasks involve multiple modalities, sharing commonalities and unique cues. Existing research often employs intricate task-specific specialist models, potentially leading to redundancy and suboptimal results. We introduce VSCode, a generalist model with novel 2D prompt learning, to jointly address four SOD tasks and three COD tasks. We utilize VST as the foundation model and introduce 2D prompts within the encoder-decoder architecture to learn domain and task-specific knowledge on two separate dimensions. A prompt discrimination loss helps disentangle peculiarities to benefit model optimization. VSCode outperforms state-of-the-art methods across six tasks on 26 datasets and exhibits zero-shot generalization to unseen tasks by combining 2D prompts, such as RGB-D COD.
While previous CNN-based models have exhibited promising results for salient object detection (SOD), their ability to explore global long-range dependencies is restricted. Our previous work, the Visual Saliency Transformer (VST), addressed this constraint from a transformer-based sequence-to-sequence perspective, to unify RGB and RGB-D SOD. In VST, we developed a multi-task transformer decoder that concurrently predicts saliency and boundary outcomes in a pure transformer architecture. Moreover, we introduced a novel token upsampling method called reverse T2T for predicting a high-resolution saliency map effortlessly within transformer-based structures. Building upon the VST model, we further propose an efficient and stronger VST version in this work, i.e. VST++. To mitigate the computational costs of the VST model, we propose a Select-Integrate Attention (SIA) module, partitioning foreground into fine-grained segments and aggregating background information into a single coarse-grained token. To incorporate 3D depth information with low cost, we design a novel depth position encoding method tailored for depth maps. Furthermore, we introduce a token-supervised prediction loss to provide straightforward guidance for the task-related tokens. We evaluate our VST++ model across various transformer-based backbones on RGB, RGB-D, and RGB-T SOD benchmark datasets. Experimental results show that our model outperforms existing methods while achieving a 25% reduction in computational costs without significant performance compromise. The demonstrated strong ability for generalization, enhanced performance, and heightened efficiency of our VST++ model highlight its potential.
Code Large Language Models (Code LLMs), such as StarCoder, have demonstrated exceptional performance in code-related tasks. However, most existing models are solely pre-trained on extensive raw code data without instruction fine-tuning. In this paper, we introduce WizardCoder, which empowers Code LLMs with complex instruction fine-tuning, by adapting the Evol-Instruct method to the domain of code. Through comprehensive experiments on four prominent code generation benchmarks, namely HumanEval, HumanEval+, MBPP, and DS-1000, we unveil the exceptional capabilities of our model. It surpasses all other open-source Code LLMs by a substantial margin. Moreover, our model even outperforms the largest closed LLMs, Anthropic's Claude and Google's Bard, on HumanEval and HumanEval+. Our code, model weights, and data are public at https://github.com/nlpxucan/WizardLM
* Large Language model, Code Generation, Code LLMs
Large Language Models (LLMs) have significantly advanced natural language processing (NLP) with their impressive language understanding and generation capabilities. However, their performance may be suboptimal for domain-specific tasks that require specialized knowledge due to limited exposure to the related data. Additionally, the lack of transparency of most state-of-the-art (SOTA) LLMs, which can only be accessed via APIs, impedes further fine-tuning with domain custom data. Moreover, providing private data to the LLMs' owner leads to data privacy problems. To address these challenges, we propose the novel Parametric Knowledge Guiding (PKG) framework, which equips LLMs with a knowledge-guiding module to access relevant knowledge without altering the LLMs' parameters. Our PKG is based on open-source "white-box" language models, allowing offline memory of any knowledge that LLMs require. We demonstrate that our PKG framework can enhance the performance of "black-box" LLMs on a range of domain knowledge-intensive tasks that require factual (+7.9%), tabular (+11.9%), medical (+3.0%), and multimodal (+8.1%) knowledge.
The spread of rumors along with breaking events seriously hinders the truth in the era of social media. Previous studies reveal that due to the lack of annotated resources, rumors presented in minority languages are hard to be detected. Furthermore, the unforeseen breaking events not involved in yesterday's news exacerbate the scarcity of data resources. In this work, we propose a novel zero-shot framework based on prompt learning to detect rumors falling in different domains or presented in different languages. More specifically, we firstly represent rumor circulated on social media as diverse propagation threads, then design a hierarchical prompt encoding mechanism to learn language-agnostic contextual representations for both prompts and rumor data. To further enhance domain adaptation, we model the domain-invariant structural features from the propagation threads, to incorporate structural position representations of influential community response. In addition, a new virtual response augmentation method is used to improve model training. Extensive experiments conducted on three real-world datasets demonstrate that our proposed model achieves much better performance than state-of-the-art methods and exhibits a superior capacity for detecting rumors at early stages.