We propose SPHINX-X, an extensive Multimodality Large Language Model (MLLM) series developed upon SPHINX. To improve the architecture and training efficiency, we modify the SPHINX framework by removing redundant visual encoders, bypassing fully-padded sub-images with skip tokens, and simplifying multi-stage training into a one-stage all-in-one paradigm. To fully unleash the potential of MLLMs, we assemble a comprehensive multi-domain and multimodal dataset covering publicly available resources in language, vision, and vision-language tasks. We further enrich this collection with our curated OCR intensive and Set-of-Mark datasets, extending the diversity and generality. By training over different base LLMs including TinyLlama1.1B, InternLM2-7B, LLaMA2-13B, and Mixtral8x7B, we obtain a spectrum of MLLMs that vary in parameter size and multilingual capabilities. Comprehensive benchmarking reveals a strong correlation between the multi-modal performance with the data and parameter scales. Code and models are released at https://github.com/Alpha-VLLM/LLaMA2-Accessory
Fine-tuning pre-trained Vision Transformers (ViT) has consistently demonstrated promising performance in the realm of visual recognition. However, adapting large pre-trained models to various tasks poses a significant challenge. This challenge arises from the need for each model to undergo an independent and comprehensive fine-tuning process, leading to substantial computational and memory demands. While recent advancements in Parameter-efficient Transfer Learning (PETL) have demonstrated their ability to achieve superior performance compared to full fine-tuning with a smaller subset of parameter updates, they tend to overlook dense prediction tasks such as object detection and segmentation. In this paper, we introduce Hierarchical Side-Tuning (HST), a novel PETL approach that enables ViT transfer to various downstream tasks effectively. Diverging from existing methods that exclusively fine-tune parameters within input spaces or certain modules connected to the backbone, we tune a lightweight and hierarchical side network (HSN) that leverages intermediate activations extracted from the backbone and generates multi-scale features to make predictions. To validate HST, we conducted extensive experiments encompassing diverse visual tasks, including classification, object detection, instance segmentation, and semantic segmentation. Notably, our method achieves state-of-the-art average Top-1 accuracy of 76.0% on VTAB-1k, all while fine-tuning a mere 0.78M parameters. When applied to object detection tasks on COCO testdev benchmark, HST even surpasses full fine-tuning and obtains better performance with 49.7 box AP and 43.2 mask AP using Cascade Mask R-CNN.
This paper presents a new vision Transformer, Scale-Aware Modulation Transformer (SMT), that can handle various downstream tasks efficiently by combining the convolutional network and vision Transformer. The proposed Scale-Aware Modulation (SAM) in the SMT includes two primary novel designs. Firstly, we introduce the Multi-Head Mixed Convolution (MHMC) module, which can capture multi-scale features and expand the receptive field. Secondly, we propose the Scale-Aware Aggregation (SAA) module, which is lightweight but effective, enabling information fusion across different heads. By leveraging these two modules, convolutional modulation is further enhanced. Furthermore, in contrast to prior works that utilized modulations throughout all stages to build an attention-free network, we propose an Evolutionary Hybrid Network (EHN), which can effectively simulate the shift from capturing local to global dependencies as the network becomes deeper, resulting in superior performance. Extensive experiments demonstrate that SMT significantly outperforms existing state-of-the-art models across a wide range of visual tasks. Specifically, SMT with 11.5M / 2.4GFLOPs and 32M / 7.7GFLOPs can achieve 82.2% and 84.3% top-1 accuracy on ImageNet-1K, respectively. After pretrained on ImageNet-22K in 224^2 resolution, it attains 87.1% and 88.1% top-1 accuracy when finetuned with resolution 224^2 and 384^2, respectively. For object detection with Mask R-CNN, the SMT base trained with 1x and 3x schedule outperforms the Swin Transformer counterpart by 4.2 and 1.3 mAP on COCO, respectively. For semantic segmentation with UPerNet, the SMT base test at single- and multi-scale surpasses Swin by 2.0 and 1.1 mIoU respectively on the ADE20K.