Fine-tuning pre-trained Vision Transformers (ViT) has consistently demonstrated promising performance in the realm of visual recognition. However, adapting large pre-trained models to various tasks poses a significant challenge. This challenge arises from the need for each model to undergo an independent and comprehensive fine-tuning process, leading to substantial computational and memory demands. While recent advancements in Parameter-efficient Transfer Learning (PETL) have demonstrated their ability to achieve superior performance compared to full fine-tuning with a smaller subset of parameter updates, they tend to overlook dense prediction tasks such as object detection and segmentation. In this paper, we introduce Hierarchical Side-Tuning (HST), a novel PETL approach that enables ViT transfer to various downstream tasks effectively. Diverging from existing methods that exclusively fine-tune parameters within input spaces or certain modules connected to the backbone, we tune a lightweight and hierarchical side network (HSN) that leverages intermediate activations extracted from the backbone and generates multi-scale features to make predictions. To validate HST, we conducted extensive experiments encompassing diverse visual tasks, including classification, object detection, instance segmentation, and semantic segmentation. Notably, our method achieves state-of-the-art average Top-1 accuracy of 76.0% on VTAB-1k, all while fine-tuning a mere 0.78M parameters. When applied to object detection tasks on COCO testdev benchmark, HST even surpasses full fine-tuning and obtains better performance with 49.7 box AP and 43.2 mask AP using Cascade Mask R-CNN.
In recent years, end-to-end scene text spotting approaches are evolving to the Transformer-based framework. While previous studies have shown the crucial importance of the intrinsic synergy between text detection and recognition, recent advances in Transformer-based methods usually adopt an implicit synergy strategy with shared query, which can not fully realize the potential of these two interactive tasks. In this paper, we argue that the explicit synergy considering distinct characteristics of text detection and recognition can significantly improve the performance text spotting. To this end, we introduce a new model named Explicit Synergy-based Text Spotting Transformer framework (ESTextSpotter), which achieves explicit synergy by modeling discriminative and interactive features for text detection and recognition within a single decoder. Specifically, we decompose the conventional shared query into task-aware queries for text polygon and content, respectively. Through the decoder with the proposed vision-language communication module, the queries interact with each other in an explicit manner while preserving discriminative patterns of text detection and recognition, thus improving performance significantly. Additionally, we propose a task-aware query initialization scheme to ensure stable training. Experimental results demonstrate that our model significantly outperforms previous state-of-the-art methods. Code is available at https://github.com/mxin262/ESTextSpotter.
Large models have recently played a dominant role in natural language processing and multimodal vision-language learning. It remains less explored about their efficacy in text-related visual tasks. We conducted a comprehensive study of existing publicly available multimodal models, evaluating their performance in text recognition, text-based visual question answering, and key information extraction. Our findings reveal strengths and weaknesses in these models, which primarily rely on semantic understanding for word recognition and exhibit inferior perception of individual character shapes. They also display indifference towards text length and have limited capabilities in detecting fine-grained features in images. Consequently, these results demonstrate that even the current most powerful large multimodal models cannot match domain-specific methods in traditional text tasks and face greater challenges in more complex tasks. Most importantly, the baseline results showcased in this study could provide a foundational framework for the conception and assessment of innovative strategies targeted at enhancing zero-shot multimodal techniques. Evaluation pipeline will be available at https://github.com/Yuliang-Liu/MultimodalOCR.
End-to-end scene text spotting has made significant progress due to its intrinsic synergy between text detection and recognition. Previous methods commonly regard manual annotations such as horizontal rectangles, rotated rectangles, quadrangles,and polygons as a prerequisite, which are much more expensive than using single-point. For the first time, we demonstrate that training scene text spotting models can be achieved with an extremely low-cost single-point annotation by the proposed framework, termed SPTS v2. SPTS v2 reserves the advantage of the auto-regressive Transformer with an Instance Assignment Decoder (IAD) through sequentially predicting the center points of all text instances inside the same predicting sequence, while with a Parallel Recognition Decoder (PRD) for text recognition in parallel. These two decoders share the same parameters and are interactively connected with a simple but effective information transmission process to pass the gradient and information. Comprehensive experiments on various existing benchmark datasets demonstrate the SPTS v2 can outperform previous state-of-the-art single-point text spotters with fewer parameters while achieving 14x faster inference speed. Most importantly, within the scope of our SPTS v2, extensive experiments further reveal an important phenomenon that single-point serves as the optimal setting for the scene text spotting compared to non-point, rectangular bounding box, and polygonal bounding box. Such an attempt provides a significant opportunity for scene text spotting applications beyond the realms of existing paradigms. Code is available at https://github.com/shannanyinxiang/SPTS.
End-to-end scene text spotting has attracted great attention in recent years due to the success of excavating the intrinsic synergy of the scene text detection and recognition. However, recent state-of-the-art methods usually incorporate detection and recognition simply by sharing the backbone, which does not directly take advantage of the feature interaction between the two tasks. In this paper, we propose a new end-to-end scene text spotting framework termed SwinTextSpotter. Using a transformer encoder with dynamic head as the detector, we unify the two tasks with a novel Recognition Conversion mechanism to explicitly guide text localization through recognition loss. The straightforward design results in a concise framework that requires neither additional rectification module nor character-level annotation for the arbitrarily-shaped text. Qualitative and quantitative experiments on multi-oriented datasets RoIC13 and ICDAR 2015, arbitrarily-shaped datasets Total-Text and CTW1500, and multi-lingual datasets ReCTS (Chinese) and VinText (Vietnamese) demonstrate SwinTextSpotter significantly outperforms existing methods. Code is available at https://github.com/mxin262/SwinTextSpotter.
Almost all scene text spotting (detection and recognition) methods rely on costly box annotation (e.g., text-line box, word-level box, and character-level box). For the first time, we demonstrate that training scene text spotting models can be achieved with an extremely low-cost annotation of a single-point for each instance. We propose an end-to-end scene text spotting method that tackles scene text spotting as a sequence prediction task, like language modeling. Given an image as input, we formulate the desired detection and recognition results as a sequence of discrete tokens and use an auto-regressive transformer to predict the sequence. We achieve promising results on several horizontal, multi-oriented, and arbitrarily shaped scene text benchmarks. Most significantly, we show that the performance is not very sensitive to the positions of the point annotation, meaning that it can be much easier to be annotated and automatically generated than the bounding box that requires precise positions. We believe that such a pioneer attempt indicates a significant opportunity for scene text spotting applications of a much larger scale than previously possible.