We present SPHINX, a versatile multi-modal large language model (MLLM) with a joint mixing of model weights, tuning tasks, and visual embeddings. First, for stronger vision-language alignment, we unfreeze the large language model (LLM) during pre-training, and introduce a weight mix strategy between LLMs trained by real-world and synthetic data. By directly integrating the weights from two domains, the mixed LLM can efficiently incorporate diverse semantics with favorable robustness. Then, to enable multi-purpose capabilities, we mix a variety of tasks for joint visual instruction tuning, and design task-specific instructions to avoid inter-task conflict. In addition to the basic visual question answering, we include more challenging tasks such as region-level understanding, caption grounding, document layout detection, and human pose estimation, contributing to mutual enhancement over different scenarios. Additionally, we propose to extract comprehensive visual embeddings from various network architectures, pre-training paradigms, and information granularity, providing language models with more robust image representations. Based on our proposed joint mixing, SPHINX exhibits superior multi-modal understanding capabilities on a wide range of applications. On top of this, we further propose an efficient strategy aiming to better capture fine-grained appearances of high-resolution images. With a mixing of different scales and high-resolution sub-images, SPHINX attains exceptional visual parsing and reasoning performance on existing evaluation benchmarks. We hope our work may cast a light on the exploration of joint mixing in future MLLM research. Code is released at https://github.com/Alpha-VLLM/LLaMA2-Accessory.
Collaborative decision-making is an essential capability for multi-robot systems, such as connected vehicles, to collaboratively control autonomous vehicles in accident-prone scenarios. Under limited communication bandwidth, capturing comprehensive situational awareness by integrating connected agents' observation is very challenging. In this paper, we propose a novel collaborative decision-making method that efficiently and effectively integrates collaborators' representations to control the ego vehicle in accident-prone scenarios. Our approach formulates collaborative decision-making as a classification problem. We first represent sequences of raw observations as spatiotemporal graphs, which significantly reduce the package size to share among connected vehicles. Then we design a novel spatiotemporal graph neural network based on heterogeneous graph learning, which analyzes spatial and temporal connections of objects in a unified way for collaborative decision-making. We evaluate our approach using a high-fidelity simulator that considers realistic traffic, communication bandwidth, and vehicle sensing among connected autonomous vehicles. The experimental results show that our representation achieves over 100x reduction in the shared data size that meets the requirements of communication bandwidth for connected autonomous driving. In addition, our approach achieves over 30% improvements in driving safety.
Recent advancements in text-to-image models, particularly diffusion models, have shown significant promise. However, compositional text-to-image models frequently encounter difficulties in generating high-quality images that accurately align with input texts describing multiple objects, variable attributes, and intricate spatial relationships. To address this limitation, we employ large vision-language models (LVLMs) for multi-dimensional assessment of the alignment between generated images and their corresponding input texts. Utilizing this assessment, we fine-tune the diffusion model to enhance its alignment capabilities. During the inference phase, an initial image is produced using the fine-tuned diffusion model. The LVLM is then employed to pinpoint areas of misalignment in the initial image, which are subsequently corrected using the image editing algorithm until no further misalignments are detected by the LVLM. The resultant image is consequently more closely aligned with the input text. Our experimental results validate that the proposed methodology significantly improves text-image alignment in compositional image generation, particularly with respect to object number, attribute binding, spatial relationships, and aesthetic quality.
We present a novel learning-based trajectory generation algorithm for outdoor robot navigation. Our goal is to compute collision-free paths that also satisfy the environment-specific traversability constraints. Our approach is designed for global planning using limited onboard robot perception in mapless environments, while ensuring comprehensive coverage of all traversable directions. Our formulation uses a Conditional Variational Autoencoder (CVAE) generative model that is enhanced with traversability constraints and an optimization formulation used for the coverage. We highlight the benefits of our approach over state-of-the-art trajectory generation approaches and demonstrate its performance in challenging and large outdoor environments, including around buildings, across intersections, along trails, and off-road terrain, using a Clearpath Husky and a Boston Dynamics Spot robot. In practice, our approach results in a 6% improvement in coverage of traversable areas and an 89% reduction in trajectory portions residing in non-traversable regions. Our video is here: https: //youtu.be/OT0q4ccGHts
Zero-shot object navigation is a challenging task for home-assistance robots. This task emphasizes visual grounding, commonsense inference and locomotion abilities, where the first two are inherent in foundation models. But for the locomotion part, most works still depend on map-based planning approaches. The gap between RGB space and map space makes it difficult to directly transfer the knowledge from foundation models to navigation tasks. In this work, we propose a Pixel-guided Navigation skill (PixNav), which bridges the gap between the foundation models and the embodied navigation task. It is straightforward for recent foundation models to indicate an object by pixels, and with pixels as the goal specification, our method becomes a versatile navigation policy towards all different kinds of objects. Besides, our PixNav is a pure RGB-based policy that can reduce the cost of home-assistance robots. Experiments demonstrate the robustness of the PixNav which achieves 80+% success rate in the local path-planning task. To perform long-horizon object navigation, we design an LLM-based planner to utilize the commonsense knowledge between objects and rooms to select the best waypoint. Evaluations across both photorealistic indoor simulators and real-world environments validate the effectiveness of our proposed navigation strategy. Code and video demos are available at https://github.com/wzcai99/Pixel-Navigator.
We present ImageBind-LLM, a multi-modality instruction tuning method of large language models (LLMs) via ImageBind. Existing works mainly focus on language and image instruction tuning, different from which, our ImageBind-LLM can respond to multi-modality conditions, including audio, 3D point clouds, video, and their embedding-space arithmetic by only image-text alignment training. During training, we adopt a learnable bind network to align the embedding space between LLaMA and ImageBind's image encoder. Then, the image features transformed by the bind network are added to word tokens of all layers in LLaMA, which progressively injects visual instructions via an attention-free and zero-initialized gating mechanism. Aided by the joint embedding of ImageBind, the simple image-text training enables our model to exhibit superior multi-modality instruction-following capabilities. During inference, the multi-modality inputs are fed into the corresponding ImageBind encoders, and processed by a proposed visual cache model for further cross-modal embedding enhancement. The training-free cache model retrieves from three million image features extracted by ImageBind, which effectively mitigates the training-inference modality discrepancy. Notably, with our approach, ImageBind-LLM can respond to instructions of diverse modalities and demonstrate significant language generation quality. Code is released at https://github.com/OpenGVLab/LLaMA-Adapter.
We introduce Point-Bind, a 3D multi-modality model aligning point clouds with 2D image, language, audio, and video. Guided by ImageBind, we construct a joint embedding space between 3D and multi-modalities, enabling many promising applications, e.g., any-to-3D generation, 3D embedding arithmetic, and 3D open-world understanding. On top of this, we further present Point-LLM, the first 3D large language model (LLM) following 3D multi-modal instructions. By parameter-efficient fine-tuning techniques, Point-LLM injects the semantics of Point-Bind into pre-trained LLMs, e.g., LLaMA, which requires no 3D instruction data, but exhibits superior 3D and multi-modal question-answering capacity. We hope our work may cast a light on the community for extending 3D point clouds to multi-modality applications. Code is available at https://github.com/ZiyuGuo99/Point-Bind_Point-LLM.