We propose SPHINX-X, an extensive Multimodality Large Language Model (MLLM) series developed upon SPHINX. To improve the architecture and training efficiency, we modify the SPHINX framework by removing redundant visual encoders, bypassing fully-padded sub-images with skip tokens, and simplifying multi-stage training into a one-stage all-in-one paradigm. To fully unleash the potential of MLLMs, we assemble a comprehensive multi-domain and multimodal dataset covering publicly available resources in language, vision, and vision-language tasks. We further enrich this collection with our curated OCR intensive and Set-of-Mark datasets, extending the diversity and generality. By training over different base LLMs including TinyLlama1.1B, InternLM2-7B, LLaMA2-13B, and Mixtral8x7B, we obtain a spectrum of MLLMs that vary in parameter size and multilingual capabilities. Comprehensive benchmarking reveals a strong correlation between the multi-modal performance with the data and parameter scales. Code and models are released at https://github.com/Alpha-VLLM/LLaMA2-Accessory
Image captioning aims at generating descriptive and meaningful textual descriptions of images, enabling a broad range of vision-language applications. Prior works have demonstrated that harnessing the power of Contrastive Image Language Pre-training (CLIP) offers a promising approach to achieving zero-shot captioning, eliminating the need for expensive caption annotations. However, the widely observed modality gap in the latent space of CLIP harms the performance of zero-shot captioning by breaking the alignment between paired image-text features. To address this issue, we conduct an analysis on the CLIP latent space which leads to two findings. Firstly, we observe that the CLIP's visual feature of image subregions can achieve closer proximity to the paired caption due to the inherent information loss in text descriptions. In addition, we show that the modality gap between a paired image-text can be empirically modeled as a zero-mean Gaussian distribution. Motivated by the findings, we propose a novel zero-shot image captioning framework with text-only training to reduce the modality gap. In particular, we introduce a subregion feature aggregation to leverage local region information, which produces a compact visual representation for matching text representation. Moreover, we incorporate a noise injection and CLIP reranking strategy to boost captioning performance. We also extend our framework to build a zero-shot VQA pipeline, demonstrating its generality. Through extensive experiments on common captioning and VQA datasets such as MSCOCO, Flickr30k and VQAV2, we show that our method achieves remarkable performance improvements. Code is available at https://github.com/Artanic30/MacCap.
* AAAI 2024.Open sourced, Code and Model Available
The surge of interest towards Multi-modal Large Language Models (MLLMs), e.g., GPT-4V(ision) from OpenAI, has marked a significant trend in both academia and industry. They endow Large Language Models (LLMs) with powerful capabilities in visual understanding, enabling them to tackle diverse multi-modal tasks. Very recently, Google released Gemini, its newest and most capable MLLM built from the ground up for multi-modality. In light of the superior reasoning capabilities, can Gemini challenge GPT-4V's leading position in multi-modal learning? In this paper, we present a preliminary exploration of Gemini Pro's visual understanding proficiency, which comprehensively covers four domains: fundamental perception, advanced cognition, challenging vision tasks, and various expert capacities. We compare Gemini Pro with the state-of-the-art GPT-4V to evaluate its upper limits, along with the latest open-sourced MLLM, Sphinx, which reveals the gap between manual efforts and black-box systems. The qualitative samples indicate that, while GPT-4V and Gemini showcase different answering styles and preferences, they can exhibit comparable visual reasoning capabilities, and Sphinx still trails behind them concerning domain generalizability. Specifically, GPT-4V tends to elaborate detailed explanations and intermediate steps, and Gemini prefers to output a direct and concise answer. The quantitative evaluation on the popular MME benchmark also demonstrates the potential of Gemini to be a strong challenger to GPT-4V. Our early investigation of Gemini also observes some common issues of MLLMs, indicating that there still remains a considerable distance towards artificial general intelligence. Our project for tracking the progress of MLLM is released at https://github.com/BradyFU/Awesome-Multimodal-Large-Language-Models.
We present SPHINX, a versatile multi-modal large language model (MLLM) with a joint mixing of model weights, tuning tasks, and visual embeddings. First, for stronger vision-language alignment, we unfreeze the large language model (LLM) during pre-training, and introduce a weight mix strategy between LLMs trained by real-world and synthetic data. By directly integrating the weights from two domains, the mixed LLM can efficiently incorporate diverse semantics with favorable robustness. Then, to enable multi-purpose capabilities, we mix a variety of tasks for joint visual instruction tuning, and design task-specific instructions to avoid inter-task conflict. In addition to the basic visual question answering, we include more challenging tasks such as region-level understanding, caption grounding, document layout detection, and human pose estimation, contributing to mutual enhancement over different scenarios. Additionally, we propose to extract comprehensive visual embeddings from various network architectures, pre-training paradigms, and information granularity, providing language models with more robust image representations. Based on our proposed joint mixing, SPHINX exhibits superior multi-modal understanding capabilities on a wide range of applications. On top of this, we further propose an efficient strategy aiming to better capture fine-grained appearances of high-resolution images. With a mixing of different scales and high-resolution sub-images, SPHINX attains exceptional visual parsing and reasoning performance on existing evaluation benchmarks. We hope our work may cast a light on the exploration of joint mixing in future MLLM research. Code is released at https://github.com/Alpha-VLLM/LLaMA2-Accessory.
Human-Object Interaction (HOI) detection aims to localize human-object pairs and recognize their interactions. Recently, Contrastive Language-Image Pre-training (CLIP) has shown great potential in providing interaction prior for HOI detectors via knowledge distillation. However, such approaches often rely on large-scale training data and suffer from inferior performance under few/zero-shot scenarios. In this paper, we propose a novel HOI detection framework that efficiently extracts prior knowledge from CLIP and achieves better generalization. In detail, we first introduce a novel interaction decoder to extract informative regions in the visual feature map of CLIP via a cross-attention mechanism, which is then fused with the detection backbone by a knowledge integration block for more accurate human-object pair detection. In addition, prior knowledge in CLIP text encoder is leveraged to generate a classifier by embedding HOI descriptions. To distinguish fine-grained interactions, we build a verb classifier from training data via visual semantic arithmetic and a lightweight verb representation adapter. Furthermore, we propose a training-free enhancement to exploit global HOI predictions from CLIP. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our method outperforms the state of the art by a large margin on various settings, e.g. +4.04 mAP on HICO-Det. The source code is available in https://github.com/Artanic30/HOICLIP.
* CVPR 2023.Open sourced, Code and Model Available
Contrastive Language-Image Pre-training (CLIP) has been shown to learn visual representations with great transferability, which achieves promising accuracy for zero-shot classification. To further improve its downstream performance, existing works propose additional learnable modules upon CLIP and fine-tune them by few-shot training sets. However, the resulting extra training cost and data requirement severely hinder the efficiency for model deployment and knowledge transfer. In this paper, we introduce a free-lunch enhancement method, CALIP, to boost CLIP's zero-shot performance via a parameter-free Attention module. Specifically, we guide visual and textual representations to interact with each other and explore cross-modal informative features via attention. As the pre-training has largely reduced the embedding distances between two modalities, we discard all learnable parameters in the attention and bidirectionally update the multi-modal features, enabling the whole process to be parameter-free and training-free. In this way, the images are blended with textual-aware signals and the text representations become visual-guided for better adaptive zero-shot alignment. We evaluate CALIP on various benchmarks of 14 datasets for both 2D image and 3D point cloud few-shot classification, showing consistent zero-shot performance improvement over CLIP. Based on that, we further insert a small number of linear layers in CALIP's attention module and verify our robustness under the few-shot settings, which also achieves leading performance compared to existing methods. Those extensive experiments demonstrate the superiority of our approach for efficient enhancement of CLIP.
Contrastive Vision-Language Pre-training (CLIP) has drown increasing attention recently for its transferable visual representation learning. Supervised by large-scale image-text pairs, CLIP is able to align paired images and texts and thus conduct zero-shot recognition in open-vocabulary scenarios. However, there exists semantic gap between the specific application and generally pre-trained knowledge, which makes the matching sub-optimal on downstream tasks. In this paper, we propose VT-CLIP to enhance vision-language modeling via visual-guided texts. Specifically, we guide the text feature to adaptively explore informative regions on the image and aggregate the visual feature by cross-attention machanism. In this way, the visual-guided text become more semantically correlated with the image, which greatly benefits the matching process. In few-shot settings, we evaluate our VT-CLIP on 11 well-known classification datasets and experiment extensive ablation studies to demonstrate the effectiveness of VT-CLIP. The code will be released soon.