Code Large Language Models (Code LLMs) have demonstrated outstanding performance in code-related tasks. Several instruction tuning approaches have been proposed to boost the code generation performance of pre-trained Code LLMs. In this paper, we introduce a diverse instruction model (DolphCoder) with self-evaluating for code generation. It learns diverse instruction targets and combines a code evaluation objective to enhance its code generation ability. Our model achieves superior performance on the HumanEval and MBPP benchmarks, demonstrating new insights for future code instruction tuning work. Our key findings are: (1) Augmenting more diverse responses with distinct reasoning paths increases the code capability of LLMs. (2) Improving one's ability to evaluate the correctness of code solutions also enhances their ability to create it.
In-context learning (ICL) is an emerging capability of large autoregressive language models where a few input-label demonstrations are appended to the input to enhance the model's understanding of downstream NLP tasks, without directly adjusting the model parameters. The effectiveness of ICL can be attributed to the strong language modeling capabilities of large language models (LLMs), which enable them to learn the mapping between input and labels based on in-context demonstrations. Despite achieving promising results, the causal nature of language modeling in ICL restricts the attention to be backward only, i.e., a token only attends to its previous tokens, failing to capture the full input-label information and limiting the model's performance. In this paper, we propose a novel ICL method called Repeated Demonstration with Sliding Causal Attention, (RdSca). Specifically, we duplicate later demonstrations and concatenate them to the front, allowing the model to `observe' the later information even under the causal restriction. Besides, we introduce sliding causal attention, which customizes causal attention to avoid information leakage. Experimental results show that our method significantly improves the input-label mapping in ICL demonstrations. We also conduct an in-depth analysis of how to customize the causal attention without training, which has been an unexplored area in previous research.
Large-scale pre-trained language models (LLMs) have demonstrated exceptional performance in various natural language processing (NLP) tasks. However, the massive size of these models poses huge challenges for their deployment in real-world applications. While numerous model compression techniques have been proposed, most of them are not well-suited for achieving extreme model compression when there is a significant gap in model scale. In this paper, we introduce a novel compression paradigm called Retrieval-based Knowledge Transfer (RetriKT), which effectively transfers the knowledge of LLMs to extremely small-scale models (e.g., 1%). In particular, our approach extracts knowledge from LLMs to construct a knowledge store, from which the small-scale model can retrieve relevant information and leverage it for effective inference. To improve the quality of the model, soft prompt tuning and Proximal Policy Optimization (PPO) reinforcement learning techniques are employed. Extensive experiments are conducted on low-resource tasks from SuperGLUE and GLUE benchmarks. The results demonstrate that the proposed approach significantly enhances the performance of small-scale models by leveraging the knowledge from LLMs.
Detecting out-of-domain (OOD) intents from user queries is essential for a task-oriented dialogue system. Previous OOD detection studies generally work on the assumption that plenty of labeled IND intents exist. In this paper, we focus on a more practical few-shot OOD setting where there are only a few labeled IND data and massive unlabeled mixed data that may belong to IND or OOD. The new scenario carries two key challenges: learning discriminative representations using limited IND data and leveraging unlabeled mixed data. Therefore, we propose an adaptive prototypical pseudo-labeling (APP) method for few-shot OOD detection, including a prototypical OOD detection framework (ProtoOOD) to facilitate low-resource OOD detection using limited IND data, and an adaptive pseudo-labeling method to produce high-quality pseudo OOD\&IND labels. Extensive experiments and analysis demonstrate the effectiveness of our method for few-shot OOD detection.
The tasks of out-of-domain (OOD) intent discovery and generalized intent discovery (GID) aim to extend a closed intent classifier to open-world intent sets, which is crucial to task-oriented dialogue (TOD) systems. Previous methods address them by fine-tuning discriminative models. Recently, although some studies have been exploring the application of large language models (LLMs) represented by ChatGPT to various downstream tasks, it is still unclear for the ability of ChatGPT to discover and incrementally extent OOD intents. In this paper, we comprehensively evaluate ChatGPT on OOD intent discovery and GID, and then outline the strengths and weaknesses of ChatGPT. Overall, ChatGPT exhibits consistent advantages under zero-shot settings, but is still at a disadvantage compared to fine-tuned models. More deeply, through a series of analytical experiments, we summarize and discuss the challenges faced by LLMs including clustering, domain-specific understanding, and cross-domain in-context learning scenarios. Finally, we provide empirical guidance for future directions to address these challenges.
Data-driven methods have achieved notable performance on intent detection, which is a task to comprehend user queries. Nonetheless, they are controversial for over-confident predictions. In some scenarios, users do not only care about the accuracy but also the confidence of model. Unfortunately, mainstream neural networks are poorly calibrated, with a large gap between accuracy and confidence. To handle this problem defined as confidence calibration, we propose a model using the hyperspherical space and rebalanced accuracy-uncertainty loss. Specifically, we project the label vector onto hyperspherical space uniformly to generate a dense label representation matrix, which mitigates over-confident predictions due to overfitting sparce one-hot label matrix. Besides, we rebalance samples of different accuracy and uncertainty to better guide model training. Experiments on the open datasets verify that our model outperforms the existing calibration methods and achieves a significant improvement on the calibration metric.
Pre-trained language models have achieved noticeable performance on the intent detection task. However, due to assigning an identical weight to each sample, they suffer from the overfitting of simple samples and the failure to learn complex samples well. To handle this problem, we propose a density-based dynamic curriculum learning model. Our model defines the sample's difficulty level according to their eigenvectors' density. In this way, we exploit the overall distribution of all samples' eigenvectors simultaneously. Then we apply a dynamic curriculum learning strategy, which pays distinct attention to samples of various difficulty levels and alters the proportion of samples during the training process. Through the above operation, simple samples are well-trained, and complex samples are enhanced. Experiments on three open datasets verify that the proposed density-based algorithm can distinguish simple and complex samples significantly. Besides, our model obtains obvious improvement over the strong baselines.
Semantic parsing is challenging due to the structure gap and the semantic gap between utterances and logical forms. In this paper, we propose an unsupervised semantic parsing method - Synchronous Semantic Decoding (SSD), which can simultaneously resolve the semantic gap and the structure gap by jointly leveraging paraphrasing and grammar constrained decoding. Specifically, we reformulate semantic parsing as a constrained paraphrasing problem: given an utterance, our model synchronously generates its canonical utterance and meaning representation. During synchronous decoding: the utterance paraphrasing is constrained by the structure of the logical form, therefore the canonical utterance can be paraphrased controlledly; the semantic decoding is guided by the semantics of the canonical utterance, therefore its logical form can be generated unsupervisedly. Experimental results show that SSD is a promising approach and can achieve competitive unsupervised semantic parsing performance on multiple datasets.