As the key to sentiment analysis, sentiment composition considers the classification of a constituent via classifications of its contained sub-constituents and rules operated on them. Such compositionality has been widely studied previously in the form of hierarchical trees including untagged and sentiment ones, which are intrinsically suboptimal in our view. To address this, we propose semantic tree, a new tree form capable of interpreting the sentiment composition in a principled way. Semantic tree is a derivation of a context-free grammar (CFG) describing the specific composition rules on difference semantic roles, which is designed carefully following previous linguistic conclusions. However, semantic tree is a latent variable since there is no its annotation in regular datasets. Thus, in our method, it is marginalized out via inside algorithm and learned to optimize the classification performance. Quantitative and qualitative results demonstrate that our method not only achieves better or competitive results compared to baselines in the setting of regular and domain adaptation classification, and also generates plausible tree explanations.
Data-driven methods have achieved notable performance on intent detection, which is a task to comprehend user queries. Nonetheless, they are controversial for over-confident predictions. In some scenarios, users do not only care about the accuracy but also the confidence of model. Unfortunately, mainstream neural networks are poorly calibrated, with a large gap between accuracy and confidence. To handle this problem defined as confidence calibration, we propose a model using the hyperspherical space and rebalanced accuracy-uncertainty loss. Specifically, we project the label vector onto hyperspherical space uniformly to generate a dense label representation matrix, which mitigates over-confident predictions due to overfitting sparce one-hot label matrix. Besides, we rebalance samples of different accuracy and uncertainty to better guide model training. Experiments on the open datasets verify that our model outperforms the existing calibration methods and achieves a significant improvement on the calibration metric.
Pre-trained language models have achieved noticeable performance on the intent detection task. However, due to assigning an identical weight to each sample, they suffer from the overfitting of simple samples and the failure to learn complex samples well. To handle this problem, we propose a density-based dynamic curriculum learning model. Our model defines the sample's difficulty level according to their eigenvectors' density. In this way, we exploit the overall distribution of all samples' eigenvectors simultaneously. Then we apply a dynamic curriculum learning strategy, which pays distinct attention to samples of various difficulty levels and alters the proportion of samples during the training process. Through the above operation, simple samples are well-trained, and complex samples are enhanced. Experiments on three open datasets verify that the proposed density-based algorithm can distinguish simple and complex samples significantly. Besides, our model obtains obvious improvement over the strong baselines.
Semantic parsing is challenging due to the structure gap and the semantic gap between utterances and logical forms. In this paper, we propose an unsupervised semantic parsing method - Synchronous Semantic Decoding (SSD), which can simultaneously resolve the semantic gap and the structure gap by jointly leveraging paraphrasing and grammar constrained decoding. Specifically, we reformulate semantic parsing as a constrained paraphrasing problem: given an utterance, our model synchronously generates its canonical utterance and meaning representation. During synchronous decoding: the utterance paraphrasing is constrained by the structure of the logical form, therefore the canonical utterance can be paraphrased controlledly; the semantic decoding is guided by the semantics of the canonical utterance, therefore its logical form can be generated unsupervisedly. Experimental results show that SSD is a promising approach and can achieve competitive unsupervised semantic parsing performance on multiple datasets.