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Huawei Shen

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AI-Generated Images Introduce Invisible Relevance Bias to Text-Image Retrieval

Nov 27, 2023
Shicheng Xu, Danyang Hou, Liang Pang, Jingcheng Deng, Jun Xu, Huawei Shen, Xueqi Cheng

With the advancement of generation models, AI-generated content (AIGC) is becoming more realistic, flooding the Internet. A recent study suggests that this phenomenon has elevated the issue of source bias in text retrieval for web searches. Specifically, neural retrieval models tend to rank generated texts higher than human-written texts. In this paper, we extend the study of this bias to cross-modal retrieval. Firstly, we successfully construct a suitable benchmark to explore the existence of the bias. Subsequent extensive experiments on this benchmark reveal that AI-generated images introduce an invisible relevance bias to text-image retrieval models. Specifically, our experiments show that text-image retrieval models tend to rank the AI-generated images higher than the real images, even though the AI-generated images do not exhibit more visually relevant features to the query than real images. This invisible relevance bias is prevalent across retrieval models with varying training data and architectures. Furthermore, our subsequent exploration reveals that the inclusion of AI-generated images in the training data of the retrieval models exacerbates the invisible relevance bias. The above phenomenon triggers a vicious cycle, which makes the invisible relevance bias become more and more serious. To elucidate the potential causes of invisible relevance and address the aforementioned issues, we introduce an effective training method aimed at alleviating the invisible relevance bias. Subsequently, we apply our proposed debiasing method to retroactively identify the causes of invisible relevance, revealing that the AI-generated images induce the image encoder to embed additional information into their representation. This information exhibits a certain consistency across generated images with different semantics and can make the retriever estimate a higher relevance score.

* 13 pages 
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TEA: Test-time Energy Adaptation

Nov 24, 2023
Yige Yuan, Bingbing Xu, Liang Hou, Fei Sun, Huawei Shen, Xueqi Cheng

Test-time adaptation (TTA) aims to improve model generalizability when test data diverges from training distribution, offering the distinct advantage of not requiring access to training data and processes, especially valuable in the context of large pre-trained models. However, current TTA methods fail to address the fundamental issue: covariate shift, i.e., the decreased generalizability can be attributed to the model's reliance on the marginal distribution of the training data, which may impair model calibration and introduce confirmation bias. To address this, we propose a novel energy-based perspective, enhancing the model's perception of target data distributions without requiring access to training data or processes. Building on this perspective, we introduce $\textbf{T}$est-time $\textbf{E}$nergy $\textbf{A}$daptation ($\textbf{TEA}$), which transforms the trained classifier into an energy-based model and aligns the model's distribution with the test data's, enhancing its ability to perceive test distributions and thus improving overall generalizability. Extensive experiments across multiple tasks, benchmarks and architectures demonstrate TEA's superior generalization performance against state-of-the-art methods. Further in-depth analyses reveal that TEA can equip the model with a comprehensive perception of test distribution, ultimately paving the way toward improved generalization and calibration.

* 16 pages, 10 figures, 7 tables 
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Think Before You Speak: Cultivating Communication Skills of Large Language Models via Inner Monologue

Nov 13, 2023
Junkai Zhou, Liang Pang, Huawei Shen, Xueqi Cheng

The emergence of large language models (LLMs) further improves the capabilities of open-domain dialogue systems and can generate fluent, coherent, and diverse responses. However, LLMs still lack an important ability: communication skills, which makes them more like information seeking tools than anthropomorphic chatbots. To make LLMs more anthropomorphic and proactive during the conversation, we add five communication skills to the response generation process: topic transition, proactively asking questions, concept guidance, empathy, and summarising often. The addition of communication skills increases the interest of users in the conversation and attracts them to chat for longer. To enable LLMs better understand and use communication skills, we design and add the inner monologue to LLMs. The complete process is achieved through prompt engineering and in-context learning. To evaluate communication skills, we construct a benchmark named Cskills for evaluating various communication skills, which can also more comprehensively evaluate the dialogue generation ability of the model. Experimental results show that the proposed CSIM strategy improves the backbone models and outperforms the baselines in both automatic and human evaluations.

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Plot Retrieval as an Assessment of Abstract Semantic Association

Nov 03, 2023
Shicheng Xu, Liang Pang, Jiangnan Li, Mo Yu, Fandong Meng, Huawei Shen, Xueqi Cheng, Jie Zhou

Retrieving relevant plots from the book for a query is a critical task, which can improve the reading experience and efficiency of readers. Readers usually only give an abstract and vague description as the query based on their own understanding, summaries, or speculations of the plot, which requires the retrieval model to have a strong ability to estimate the abstract semantic associations between the query and candidate plots. However, existing information retrieval (IR) datasets cannot reflect this ability well. In this paper, we propose Plot Retrieval, a labeled dataset to train and evaluate the performance of IR models on the novel task Plot Retrieval. Text pairs in Plot Retrieval have less word overlap and more abstract semantic association, which can reflect the ability of the IR models to estimate the abstract semantic association, rather than just traditional lexical or semantic matching. Extensive experiments across various lexical retrieval, sparse retrieval, dense retrieval, and cross-encoder methods compared with human studies on Plot Retrieval show current IR models still struggle in capturing abstract semantic association between texts. Plot Retrieval can be the benchmark for further research on the semantic association modeling ability of IR models.

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RegaVAE: A Retrieval-Augmented Gaussian Mixture Variational Auto-Encoder for Language Modeling

Oct 23, 2023
Jingcheng Deng, Liang Pang, Huawei Shen, Xueqi Cheng

Retrieval-augmented language models show promise in addressing issues like outdated information and hallucinations in language models (LMs). However, current research faces two main problems: 1) determining what information to retrieve, and 2) effectively combining retrieved information during generation. We argue that valuable retrieved information should not only be related to the current source text but also consider the future target text, given the nature of LMs that model future tokens. Moreover, we propose that aggregation using latent variables derived from a compact latent space is more efficient than utilizing explicit raw text, which is limited by context length and susceptible to noise. Therefore, we introduce RegaVAE, a retrieval-augmented language model built upon the variational auto-encoder (VAE). It encodes the text corpus into a latent space, capturing current and future information from both source and target text. Additionally, we leverage the VAE to initialize the latent space and adopt the probabilistic form of the retrieval generation paradigm by expanding the Gaussian prior distribution into a Gaussian mixture distribution. Theoretical analysis provides an optimizable upper bound for RegaVAE. Experimental results on various datasets demonstrate significant improvements in text generation quality and hallucination removal.

* Accepted to the Findings of EMNLP 2023 
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Causality and Independence Enhancement for Biased Node Classification

Oct 14, 2023
Guoxin Chen, Yongqing Wang, Fangda Guo, Qinglang Guo, Jiangli Shao, Huawei Shen, Xueqi Cheng

Most existing methods that address out-of-distribution (OOD) generalization for node classification on graphs primarily focus on a specific type of data biases, such as label selection bias or structural bias. However, anticipating the type of bias in advance is extremely challenging, and designing models solely for one specific type may not necessarily improve overall generalization performance. Moreover, limited research has focused on the impact of mixed biases, which are more prevalent and demanding in real-world scenarios. To address these limitations, we propose a novel Causality and Independence Enhancement (CIE) framework, applicable to various graph neural networks (GNNs). Our approach estimates causal and spurious features at the node representation level and mitigates the influence of spurious correlations through the backdoor adjustment. Meanwhile, independence constraint is introduced to improve the discriminability and stability of causal and spurious features in complex biased environments. Essentially, CIE eliminates different types of data biases from a unified perspective, without the need to design separate methods for each bias as before. To evaluate the performance under specific types of data biases, mixed biases, and low-resource scenarios, we conducted comprehensive experiments on five publicly available datasets. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach CIE not only significantly enhances the performance of GNNs but outperforms state-of-the-art debiased node classification methods.

* 10 pages, 5 figures 
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Robust Recommender System: A Survey and Future Directions

Sep 05, 2023
Kaike Zhang, Qi Cao, Fei Sun, Yunfan Wu, Shuchang Tao, Huawei Shen, Xueqi Cheng

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With the rapid growth of information, recommender systems have become integral for providing personalized suggestions and overcoming information overload. However, their practical deployment often encounters "dirty" data, where noise or malicious information can lead to abnormal recommendations. Research on improving recommender systems' robustness against such dirty data has thus gained significant attention. This survey provides a comprehensive review of recent work on recommender systems' robustness. We first present a taxonomy to organize current techniques for withstanding malicious attacks and natural noise. We then explore state-of-the-art methods in each category, including fraudster detection, adversarial training, certifiable robust training against malicious attacks, and regularization, purification, self-supervised learning against natural noise. Additionally, we summarize evaluation metrics and common datasets used to assess robustness. We discuss robustness across varying recommendation scenarios and its interplay with other properties like accuracy, interpretability, privacy, and fairness. Finally, we delve into open issues and future research directions in this emerging field. Our goal is to equip readers with a holistic understanding of robust recommender systems and spotlight pathways for future research and development.

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Bridged-GNN: Knowledge Bridge Learning for Effective Knowledge Transfer

Aug 18, 2023
Wendong Bi, Xueqi Cheng, Bingbing Xu, Xiaoqian Sun, Li Xu, Huawei Shen

The data-hungry problem, characterized by insufficiency and low-quality of data, poses obstacles for deep learning models. Transfer learning has been a feasible way to transfer knowledge from high-quality external data of source domains to limited data of target domains, which follows a domain-level knowledge transfer to learn a shared posterior distribution. However, they are usually built on strong assumptions, e.g., the domain invariant posterior distribution, which is usually unsatisfied and may introduce noises, resulting in poor generalization ability on target domains. Inspired by Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) that aggregate information from neighboring nodes, we redefine the paradigm as learning a knowledge-enhanced posterior distribution for target domains, namely Knowledge Bridge Learning (KBL). KBL first learns the scope of knowledge transfer by constructing a Bridged-Graph that connects knowledgeable samples to each target sample and then performs sample-wise knowledge transfer via GNNs.KBL is free from strong assumptions and is robust to noises in the source data. Guided by KBL, we propose the Bridged-GNN} including an Adaptive Knowledge Retrieval module to build Bridged-Graph and a Graph Knowledge Transfer module. Comprehensive experiments on both un-relational and relational data-hungry scenarios demonstrate the significant improvements of Bridged-GNN compared with SOTA methods

* Accepted by CIKM2023 
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OpenGDA: Graph Domain Adaptation Benchmark for Cross-network Learning

Jul 21, 2023
Boshen Shi, Yongqing Wang, Fangda Guo, Jiangli Shao, Huawei Shen, Xueqi Cheng

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Graph domain adaptation models are widely adopted in cross-network learning tasks, with the aim of transferring labeling or structural knowledge. Currently, there mainly exist two limitations in evaluating graph domain adaptation models. On one side, they are primarily tested for the specific cross-network node classification task, leaving tasks at edge-level and graph-level largely under-explored. Moreover, they are primarily tested in limited scenarios, such as social networks or citation networks, lacking validation of model's capability in richer scenarios. As comprehensively assessing models could enhance model practicality in real-world applications, we propose a benchmark, known as OpenGDA. It provides abundant pre-processed and unified datasets for different types of tasks (node, edge, graph). They originate from diverse scenarios, covering web information systems, urban systems and natural systems. Furthermore, it integrates state-of-the-art models with standardized and end-to-end pipelines. Overall, OpenGDA provides a user-friendly, scalable and reproducible benchmark for evaluating graph domain adaptation models. The benchmark experiments highlight the challenges of applying GDA models to real-world applications with consistent good performance, and potentially provide insights to future research. As an emerging project, OpenGDA will be regularly updated with new datasets and models. It could be accessed from

* Under Review 
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