Text watermarking algorithms play a crucial role in the copyright protection of textual content, yet their capabilities and application scenarios have been limited historically. The recent developments in large language models (LLMs) have opened new opportunities for the advancement of text watermarking techniques. LLMs not only enhance the capabilities of text watermarking algorithms through their text understanding and generation abilities but also necessitate the use of text watermarking algorithms for their own copyright protection. This paper conducts a comprehensive survey of the current state of text watermarking technology, covering four main aspects: (1) an overview and comparison of different text watermarking techniques; (2) evaluation methods for text watermarking algorithms, including their success rates, impact on text quality, robustness, and unforgeability; (3) potential application scenarios for text watermarking technology; (4) current challenges and future directions for development. This survey aims to provide researchers with a thorough understanding of text watermarking technology, thereby promoting its further advancement.
Large language models (LLMs) have achieved remarkable advancements in the field of natural language processing. However, the sheer scale and computational demands of these models present formidable challenges when considering their practical deployment in resource-constrained contexts. While techniques such as chain-of-thought (CoT) distillation have displayed promise in distilling LLMs into small language models (SLMs), there is a risk that distilled SLMs may still carry over flawed reasoning or hallucinations inherited from their LLM counterparts. To address these issues, we propose a twofold methodology: First, we introduce a novel method for distilling the self-evaluation capability inherent in LLMs into SLMs, which aims to mitigate the adverse effects of erroneous reasoning and reduce hallucinations. Second, we advocate for a comprehensive distillation process that incorporates multiple distinct chain-of-thought and self-evaluation paradigms and ensures a more holistic and robust knowledge transfer into SLMs. Experiments on three NLP benchmarks demonstrate that our method significantly improves the performance of distilled SLMs and sheds light on the path towards developing smaller models closely aligned with human cognition.
How can we better extract entities and relations from text? Using multimodal extraction with images and text obtains more signals for entities and relations, and aligns them through graphs or hierarchical fusion, aiding in extraction. Despite attempts at various fusions, previous works have overlooked many unlabeled image-caption pairs, such as NewsCLIPing. This paper proposes innovative pre-training objectives for entity-object and relation-image alignment, extracting objects from images and aligning them with entity and relation prompts for soft pseudo-labels. These labels are used as self-supervised signals for pre-training, enhancing the ability to extract entities and relations. Experiments on three datasets show an average 3.41% F1 improvement over prior SOTA. Additionally, our method is orthogonal to previous multimodal fusions, and using it on prior SOTA fusions further improves 5.47% F1.
How to identify semantic relations among entities in a document when only a few labeled documents are available? Few-shot document-level relation extraction (FSDLRE) is crucial for addressing the pervasive data scarcity problem in real-world scenarios. Metric-based meta-learning is an effective framework widely adopted for FSDLRE, which constructs class prototypes for classification. However, existing works often struggle to obtain class prototypes with accurate relational semantics: 1) To build prototype for a target relation type, they aggregate the representations of all entity pairs holding that relation, while these entity pairs may also hold other relations, thus disturbing the prototype. 2) They use a set of generic NOTA (none-of-the-above) prototypes across all tasks, neglecting that the NOTA semantics differs in tasks with different target relation types. In this paper, we propose a relation-aware prototype learning method for FSDLRE to strengthen the relational semantics of prototype representations. By judiciously leveraging the relation descriptions and realistic NOTA instances as guidance, our method effectively refines the relation prototypes and generates task-specific NOTA prototypes. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our method outperforms state-of-the-art approaches by average 2.61% $F_1$ across various settings of two FSDLRE benchmarks.
This survey addresses the crucial issue of factuality in Large Language Models (LLMs). As LLMs find applications across diverse domains, the reliability and accuracy of their outputs become vital. We define the Factuality Issue as the probability of LLMs to produce content inconsistent with established facts. We first delve into the implications of these inaccuracies, highlighting the potential consequences and challenges posed by factual errors in LLM outputs. Subsequently, we analyze the mechanisms through which LLMs store and process facts, seeking the primary causes of factual errors. Our discussion then transitions to methodologies for evaluating LLM factuality, emphasizing key metrics, benchmarks, and studies. We further explore strategies for enhancing LLM factuality, including approaches tailored for specific domains. We focus two primary LLM configurations standalone LLMs and Retrieval-Augmented LLMs that utilizes external data, we detail their unique challenges and potential enhancements. Our survey offers a structured guide for researchers aiming to fortify the factual reliability of LLMs.
Watermark algorithms for large language models (LLMs) have achieved extremely high accuracy in detecting text generated by LLMs. Such algorithms typically involve adding extra watermark logits to the LLM's logits at each generation step. However, prior algorithms face a trade-off between attack robustness and security robustness. This is because the watermark logits for a token are determined by a certain number of preceding tokens; a small number leads to low security robustness, while a large number results in insufficient attack robustness. In this work, we propose a semantic invariant watermarking method for LLMs that provides both attack robustness and security robustness. The watermark logits in our work are determined by the semantics of all preceding tokens. Specifically, we utilize another embedding LLM to generate semantic embeddings for all preceding tokens, and then these semantic embeddings are transformed into the watermark logits through our trained watermark model. Subsequent analyses and experiments demonstrated the attack robustness of our method in semantically invariant settings: synonym substitution and text paraphrasing settings. Finally, we also show that our watermark possesses adequate security robustness. Our code and data are available at https://github.com/THU-BPM/Robust_Watermark.
Large language models (LLMs) have recently driven striking performance improvements across a range of natural language processing tasks. The factual knowledge acquired during pretraining and instruction tuning can be useful in various downstream tasks, such as question answering, and language generation. Unlike conventional Knowledge Bases (KBs) that explicitly store factual knowledge, LLMs implicitly store facts in their parameters. Content generated by the LLMs can often exhibit inaccuracies or deviations from the truth, due to facts that can be incorrectly induced or become obsolete over time. To this end, we aim to comprehensively evaluate the extent and scope of factual knowledge within LLMs by designing the benchmark Pinocchio. Pinocchio contains 20K diverse factual questions that span different sources, timelines, domains, regions, and languages. Furthermore, we investigate whether LLMs are able to compose multiple facts, update factual knowledge temporally, reason over multiple pieces of facts, identify subtle factual differences, and resist adversarial examples. Extensive experiments on different sizes and types of LLMs show that existing LLMs still lack factual knowledge and suffer from various spurious correlations. We believe this is a critical bottleneck for realizing trustworthy artificial intelligence. The dataset Pinocchio and our codes will be publicly available.
Recently, text watermarking algorithms for large language models (LLMs) have been mitigating the potential harms of text generated by the LLMs, including fake news and copyright issues. However, the watermark detection of current text algorithms requires the key from the generation process, making them susceptible to breaches and counterfeiting. In this work, we propose the first private watermarking algorithm, which extends the current text watermarking algorithms by using two different neural networks respectively for watermark generation and detection, rather than using the same key at both stages. Meanwhile, part of the parameters of the watermark generation and detection networks are shared, which makes the detection network achieve a high accuracy very efficiently. Experiments show that our algorithm ensures high detection accuracy with minimal impact on generation and detection speed, due to the small parameter size of both networks. Additionally, our subsequent analysis demonstrates the difficulty of reverting the watermark generation rules from the detection network.