We consider minimizing a function consisting of a quadratic term and a proximable term which is possibly nonconvex and nonsmooth. This problem is also known as scaled proximal operator. Despite its simple form, existing methods suffer from slow convergence or high implementation complexity or both. To overcome these limitations, we develop a fast and user-friendly second-order proximal algorithm. Key innovation involves building and solving a series of opportunistically majorized problems along a hybrid Newton direction. The approach directly uses the precise Hessian of the quadratic term, and calculates the inverse only once, eliminating the iterative numerical approximation of the Hessian, a common practice in quasi-Newton methods. The algorithm's convergence to a critical point is established, and local convergence rate is derived based on the Kurdyka-Lojasiewicz property of the objective function. Numerical comparisons are conducted on well-known optimization problems. The results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm not only achieves a faster convergence but also tends to converge to a better local optimum compare to benchmark algorithms.
This paper investigates signal estimation in wireless transmission from the perspective of statistical machine learning, where the transmitted signals may be from an integrated sensing and communication system; that is, 1) signals may be not only discrete constellation points but also arbitrary complex values; 2) signals may be spatially correlated. Particular attention is paid to handling various uncertainties such as the uncertainty of the transmitting signal covariance, the uncertainty of the channel matrix, the uncertainty of the channel noise covariance, the existence of channel impulse noises (i.e., outliers), and the limited sample size of pilots. To proceed, a distributionally robust machine learning framework that is insensitive to the above uncertainties is proposed for beamforming (at the receiver) and estimation of wireless signals, which reveals that channel estimation is not a necessary operation. For optimal linear estimation, the proposed framework includes several existing beamformers as special cases such as diagonal loading and eigenvalue thresholding. For optimal nonlinear estimation, estimators are limited in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces and neural network function spaces, and corresponding uncertainty-aware solutions (e.g., kernelized diagonal loading) are derived. In addition, we prove that the ridge and kernel ridge regression methods in machine learning are distributionally robust against diagonal perturbation in feature covariance.
Data-driven soft sensors provide a potentially cost-effective and more accurate modeling approach to measure difficult-to-measure indices in industrial processes compared to mechanistic approaches. Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, such as deep learning, have become a popular soft sensors modeling approach in the area of machine learning and big data. However, soft sensors models based deep learning potentially lead to complex model structures and excessive training time. In addition, industrial processes often rely on distributed control systems (DCS) characterized by resource constraints. Herein, guided by spatial geometric, a lightweight geometric constructive neural network, namely LightGCNet, is proposed, which utilizes compact angle constraint to assign the hidden parameters from dynamic intervals. At the same time, a node pool strategy and spatial geometric relationships are used to visualize and optimize the process of assigning hidden parameters, enhancing interpretability. In addition, the universal approximation property of LightGCNet is proved by spatial geometric analysis. Two versions algorithmic implementations of LightGCNet are presented in this article. Simulation results concerning both benchmark datasets and the ore grinding process indicate remarkable merits of LightGCNet in terms of small network size, fast learning speed, and sound generalization.
* arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2307.00185
In the context of deep learning research, where model introductions continually occur, the need for effective and efficient evaluation remains paramount. Existing methods often emphasize accuracy metrics, overlooking stability. To address this, the paper introduces the Accuracy-Stability Index (ASI), a quantitative measure incorporating both accuracy and stability for assessing deep learning models. Experimental results demonstrate the application of ASI, and a 3D surface model is presented for visualizing ASI, mean accuracy, and coefficient of variation. This paper addresses the important issue of quantitative benchmarking metrics for deep learning models, providing a new approach for accurately evaluating accuracy and stability of deep learning models. The paper concludes with discussions on potential weaknesses and outlines future research directions.
Integrated sensing and communication (ISAC), which enables hardware, resources (e.g., spectra), and waveforms sharing, is becoming a key feature in future-generation communication systems. This paper investigates robust waveform design for ISAC systems when the underlying true communication channels (e.g. time-selective ones) are not accurately known. With uncertainties in nominal communication channel models, the nominally-estimated communication performance may be not achievable in practice; i.e., the communication performance of ISAC systems cannot be guaranteed. Therefore, we formulate robust waveform design problems by studying the worst-case channels and prove that the robustly-estimated performance is guaranteed to be attainable in real-world operation. As a consequence, the reliability of ISAC systems in terms of communication performance is improved. The robust waveform design problems are shown to be non-convex, non-differentiable, and high-dimensional, which cannot be solved using existing optimization techniques. Therefore, we develop a computationally-efficient and globally-optimal algorithm to solve them. Simulation results show that the robustly-estimated communication performance can be ensured to be practically reachable while the nominally-estimated performance cannot, which validates the value of robust design.
As aliasing artefacts are highly structural and non-local, many MRI reconstruction networks use pooling to enlarge filter coverage and incorporate global context. However, this inadvertently impedes fine detail recovery as downsampling creates a resolution bottleneck. Moreover, real and imaginary features are commonly split into separate channels, discarding phase information particularly important to high frequency textures. In this work, we introduce an efficient multi-scale reconstruction network using dilated convolutions to preserve resolution and experiment with a complex-valued version using complex convolutions. Inspired by parallel dilated filters, multiple receptive fields are processed simultaneously with branches that see both large structural artefacts and fine local features. We also adopt dense residual connections for feature aggregation to efficiently increase scale and the deep cascade global architecture to reduce overfitting. The real-valued version of this model outperformed common reconstruction architectures as well as a state-of-the-art multi-scale network whilst being three times more efficient. The complex-valued network yielded better qualitative results when more phase information was present.
The SoccerNet 2023 challenges were the third annual video understanding challenges organized by the SoccerNet team. For this third edition, the challenges were composed of seven vision-based tasks split into three main themes. The first theme, broadcast video understanding, is composed of three high-level tasks related to describing events occurring in the video broadcasts: (1) action spotting, focusing on retrieving all timestamps related to global actions in soccer, (2) ball action spotting, focusing on retrieving all timestamps related to the soccer ball change of state, and (3) dense video captioning, focusing on describing the broadcast with natural language and anchored timestamps. The second theme, field understanding, relates to the single task of (4) camera calibration, focusing on retrieving the intrinsic and extrinsic camera parameters from images. The third and last theme, player understanding, is composed of three low-level tasks related to extracting information about the players: (5) re-identification, focusing on retrieving the same players across multiple views, (6) multiple object tracking, focusing on tracking players and the ball through unedited video streams, and (7) jersey number recognition, focusing on recognizing the jersey number of players from tracklets. Compared to the previous editions of the SoccerNet challenges, tasks (2-3-7) are novel, including new annotations and data, task (4) was enhanced with more data and annotations, and task (6) now focuses on end-to-end approaches. More information on the tasks, challenges, and leaderboards are available on https://www.soccer-net.org. Baselines and development kits can be found on https://github.com/SoccerNet.
Given the prevalence of rolling bearing fault diagnosis as a practical issue across various working conditions, the limited availability of samples compounds the challenge. Additionally, the complexity of the external environment and the structure of rolling bearings often manifests faults characterized by randomness and fuzziness, hindering the effective extraction of fault characteristics and restricting the accuracy of fault diagnosis. To overcome these problems, this paper presents a novel approach termed constructive Incremental learning-based ensemble domain adaptation (CIL-EDA) approach. Specifically, it is implemented on stochastic configuration networks (SCN) to constructively improve its adaptive performance in multi-domains. Concretely, a cloud feature extraction method is employed in conjunction with wavelet packet decomposition (WPD) to capture the uncertainty of fault information from multiple resolution aspects. Subsequently, constructive Incremental learning-based domain adaptation (CIL-DA) is firstly developed to enhance the cross-domain learning capability of each hidden node through domain matching and construct a robust fault classifier by leveraging limited labeled data from both target and source domains. Finally, fault diagnosis results are obtained by a majority voting of CIL-EDA which integrates CIL-DA and parallel ensemble learning. Experimental results demonstrate that our CIL-DA outperforms several domain adaptation methods and CIL-EDA consistently outperforms state-of-art fault diagnosis methods in few-shot scenarios.
In e-commerce platforms, the relevant recommendation is a unique scenario providing related items for a trigger item that users are interested in. However, users' preferences for the similarity and diversity of recommendation results are dynamic and vary under different conditions. Moreover, individual item-level diversity is too coarse-grained since all recommended items are related to the trigger item. Thus, the two main challenges are to learn fine-grained representations of similarity and diversity and capture users' dynamic preferences for them under different conditions. To address these challenges, we propose a novel method called the Dynamic Preference-based and Attribute-aware Network (DPAN) for predicting Click-Through Rate (CTR) in relevant recommendations. Specifically, based on Attribute-aware Activation Values Generation (AAVG), Bi-dimensional Compression-based Re-expression (BCR) is designed to obtain similarity and diversity representations of user interests and item information. Then Shallow and Deep Union-based Fusion (SDUF) is proposed to capture users' dynamic preferences for the diverse degree of recommendation results according to various conditions. DPAN has demonstrated its effectiveness through extensive offline experiments and online A/B testing, resulting in a significant 7.62% improvement in CTR. Currently, DPAN has been successfully deployed on our e-commerce platform serving the primary traffic for relevant recommendations. The code of DPAN has been made publicly available.
Large language models (LLMs) have demonstrated exceptional performance in various natural language processing tasks, yet their efficacy in more challenging and domain-specific tasks remains largely unexplored. This paper presents FinEval, a benchmark specifically designed for the financial domain knowledge in the LLMs. FinEval is a collection of high-quality multiple-choice questions covering Finance, Economy, Accounting, and Certificate. It includes 4,661 questions spanning 34 different academic subjects. To ensure a comprehensive model performance evaluation, FinEval employs a range of prompt types, including zero-shot and few-shot prompts, as well as answer-only and chain-of-thought prompts. Evaluating state-of-the-art Chinese and English LLMs on FinEval, the results show that only GPT-4 achieved an accuracy close to 70% in different prompt settings, indicating significant growth potential for LLMs in the financial domain knowledge. Our work offers a more comprehensive financial knowledge evaluation benchmark, utilizing data of mock exams and covering a wide range of evaluated LLMs.