Instruction tuning unlocks the superior capability of Large Language Models (LLM) to interact with humans. Furthermore, recent instruction-following datasets include images as visual inputs, collecting responses for image-based instructions. However, visual instruction-tuned models cannot comprehend textual details within images well. This work enhances the current visual instruction tuning pipeline with text-rich images (e.g., movie posters, book covers, etc.). Specifically, we first use publicly available OCR tools to collect results on 422K text-rich images from the LAION dataset. Moreover, we prompt text-only GPT-4 with recognized texts and image captions to generate 16K conversations, each containing question-answer pairs for text-rich images. By combining our collected data with previous multi-modal instruction-following data, our model, LLaVAR, substantially improves the LLaVA model's capability on text-based VQA datasets (up to 20% accuracy improvement) while achieving an accuracy of 91.42% on ScienceQA. The GPT-4-based instruction-following evaluation also demonstrates the improvement of our model on both natural images and text-rich images. Through qualitative analysis, LLaVAR shows promising interaction (e.g., reasoning, writing, and elaboration) skills with humans based on the latest real-world online content that combines text and images. We make our code/data/models publicly available at https://llavar.github.io/.
Despite the progress of image segmentation for accurate visual entity segmentation, completing the diverse requirements of image editing applications for different-level region-of-interest selections remains unsolved. In this paper, we propose a new task, All-Inclusive Multi-Level Segmentation (AIMS), which segments visual regions into three levels: part, entity, and relation (two entities with some semantic relationships). We also build a unified AIMS model through multi-dataset multi-task training to address the two major challenges of annotation inconsistency and task correlation. Specifically, we propose task complementarity, association, and prompt mask encoder for three-level predictions. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness and generalization capacity of our method compared to other state-of-the-art methods on a single dataset or the concurrent work on segmenting anything. We will make our code and training model publicly available.
Visual text evokes an image in a person's mind, while non-visual text fails to do so. A method to automatically detect visualness in text will unlock the ability to augment text with relevant images, as neural text-to-image generation and retrieval models operate on the implicit assumption that the input text is visual in nature. We curate a dataset of 3,620 English sentences and their visualness scores provided by multiple human annotators. Additionally, we use documents that contain text and visual assets to create a distantly supervised corpus of document text and associated images. We also propose a fine-tuning strategy that adapts large vision-language models like CLIP that assume a one-to-one correspondence between text and image to the task of scoring text visualness from text input alone. Our strategy involves modifying the model's contrastive learning objective to map text identified as non-visual to a common NULL image while matching visual text to their corresponding images in the document. We evaluate the proposed approach on its ability to (i) classify visual and non-visual text accurately, and (ii) attend over words that are identified as visual in psycholinguistic studies. Empirical evaluation indicates that our approach performs better than several heuristics and baseline models for the proposed task. Furthermore, to highlight the importance of modeling the visualness of text, we conduct qualitative analyses of text-to-image generation systems like DALL-E.
Document images are a ubiquitous source of data where the text is organized in a complex hierarchical structure ranging from fine granularity (e.g., words), medium granularity (e.g., regions such as paragraphs or figures), to coarse granularity (e.g., the whole page). The spatial hierarchical relationships between content at different levels of granularity are crucial for document image understanding tasks. Existing methods learn features from either word-level or region-level but fail to consider both simultaneously. Word-level models are restricted by the fact that they originate from pure-text language models, which only encode the word-level context. In contrast, region-level models attempt to encode regions corresponding to paragraphs or text blocks into a single embedding, but they perform worse with additional word-level features. To deal with these issues, we propose MGDoc, a new multi-modal multi-granular pre-training framework that encodes page-level, region-level, and word-level information at the same time. MGDoc uses a unified text-visual encoder to obtain multi-modal features across different granularities, which makes it possible to project the multi-granular features into the same hyperspace. To model the region-word correlation, we design a cross-granular attention mechanism and specific pre-training tasks for our model to reinforce the model of learning the hierarchy between regions and words. Experiments demonstrate that our proposed model can learn better features that perform well across granularities and lead to improvements in downstream tasks.
Recognizing out-of-distribution (OOD) samples is critical for machine learning systems deployed in the open world. The vast majority of OOD detection methods are driven by a single modality (e.g., either vision or language), leaving the rich information in multi-modal representations untapped. Inspired by the recent success of vision-language pre-training, this paper enriches the landscape of OOD detection from a single-modal to a multi-modal regime. Particularly, we propose Maximum Concept Matching (MCM), a simple yet effective zero-shot OOD detection method based on aligning visual features with textual concepts. We contribute in-depth analysis and theoretical insights to understand the effectiveness of MCM. Extensive experiments demonstrate that MCM achieves superior performance on a wide variety of real-world tasks. MCM with vision-language features outperforms a common baseline with pure visual features on a hard OOD task with semantically similar classes by 13.1% (AUROC). Code is available at https://github.com/deeplearning-wisc/MCM.
In dense image segmentation tasks (e.g., semantic, panoptic), existing methods can hardly generalize well to unseen image domains, predefined classes, and image resolution & quality variations. Motivated by these observations, we construct a large-scale entity segmentation dataset to explore fine-grained entity segmentation, with a strong focus on open-world and high-quality dense segmentation. The dataset contains images spanning diverse image domains and resolutions, along with high-quality mask annotations for training and testing. Given the high-quality and -resolution nature of the dataset, we propose CropFormer for high-quality segmentation, which can improve mask prediction using high-res image crops that provide more fine-grained image details than the full image. CropFormer is the first query-based Transformer architecture that can effectively ensemble mask predictions from multiple image crops, by learning queries that can associate the same entities across the full image and its crop. With CropFormer, we achieve a significant AP gain of $1.9$ on the challenging fine-grained entity segmentation task. The dataset and code will be released at http://luqi.info/entityv2.github.io/.
In this paper, we introduce a novel concept of user-entity differential privacy (UeDP) to provide formal privacy protection simultaneously to both sensitive entities in textual data and data owners in learning natural language models (NLMs). To preserve UeDP, we developed a novel algorithm, called UeDP-Alg, optimizing the trade-off between privacy loss and model utility with a tight sensitivity bound derived from seamlessly combining user and sensitive entity sampling processes. An extensive theoretical analysis and evaluation show that our UeDP-Alg outperforms baseline approaches in model utility under the same privacy budget consumption on several NLM tasks, using benchmark datasets.
Confidence estimation, a task that aims to evaluate the trustworthiness of the model's prediction output during deployment, has received lots of research attention recently, due to its importance for the safe deployment of deep models. Previous works have outlined two important qualities that a reliable confidence estimation model should possess, i.e., the ability to perform well under label imbalance and the ability to handle various out-of-distribution data inputs. In this work, we propose a meta-learning framework that can simultaneously improve upon both qualities in a confidence estimation model. Specifically, we first construct virtual training and testing sets with some intentionally designed distribution differences between them. Our framework then uses the constructed sets to train the confidence estimation model through a virtual training and testing scheme leading it to learn knowledge that generalizes to diverse distributions. We show the effectiveness of our framework on both monocular depth estimation and image classification.