As synthetic data becomes higher quality and proliferates on the internet, machine learning models are increasingly trained on a mix of human- and machine-generated data. Despite the successful stories of using synthetic data for representation learning, using synthetic data for generative model training creates "self-consuming loops" which may lead to training instability or even collapse, unless certain conditions are met. Our paper aims to stabilize self-consuming generative model training. Our theoretical results demonstrate that by introducing an idealized correction function, which maps a data point to be more likely under the true data distribution, self-consuming loops can be made exponentially more stable. We then propose self-correction functions, which rely on expert knowledge (e.g. the laws of physics programmed in a simulator), and aim to approximate the idealized corrector automatically and at scale. We empirically validate the effectiveness of self-correcting self-consuming loops on the challenging human motion synthesis task, and observe that it successfully avoids model collapse, even when the ratio of synthetic data to real data is as high as 100%.
Large language models have achieved great success in recent years, so as their variants in vision. Existing vision-language models can describe images in natural languages, answer visual-related questions, or perform complex reasoning about the image. However, it is yet unclear how localization tasks, such as word grounding or referring localization, can be performed using large language models. In this work, we aim to develop a vision-language model that can take locations, for example, a set of points or boxes, as either inputs or outputs. When taking locations as inputs, the model performs location-conditioned captioning, which generates captions for the indicated object or region. When generating locations as outputs, our model regresses pixel coordinates for each output word generated by the language model, and thus performs dense word grounding. Our model is pre-trained on the Localized Narrative dataset, which contains pixel-word-aligned captioning from human attention. We show our model can be applied to various location-aware vision-language tasks, including referring localization, location-conditioned captioning, and dense object captioning, archiving state-of-the-art performance on RefCOCO and Visual Genome. Project page: https://jerryxu.net/PixelLLM .
Learning from videos is an emerging research area that enables robots to acquire skills from human demonstrations, such as procedural videos. To do this, video-language models must be able to obtain structured understandings, such as the temporal segmentation of a demonstration into sequences of actions and skills, and to generalize the understandings to novel domains. In pursuit of this goal, we introduce Spacewalk-18, a benchmark containing two tasks: (1) step recognition and (2) intra-video retrieval over a dataset of temporally segmented and labeled tasks in International Space Station spacewalk recordings. In tandem, the two tasks quantify a model's ability to make use of: (1) out-of-domain visual information; (2) a high temporal context window; and (3) multimodal (text + video) domains. This departs from existing benchmarks for procedural video understanding, which typically deal with short context lengths and can be solved with a single modality. Spacewalk-18, with its inherent multimodal and long-form complexity, exposes the high difficulty of task recognition and segmentation. We find that state-of-the-art methods perform poorly on our benchmark, demonstrating that the goal of generalizable procedural video understanding models is far out and underscoring the need to develop new approaches to these tasks. Data, model, and code will be publicly released.
What makes good video representations for video understanding, such as anticipating future activities, or answering video-conditioned questions? While earlier approaches focus on end-to-end learning directly from video pixels, we propose to revisit text-based representations, such as discrete action labels, or free-form video captions, which are interpretable and can be directly consumed by large language models (LLMs). Intuitively, different video understanding tasks may require representations that are complementary and at different granularities. To this end, we propose versatile action models (Vamos), a learning framework powered by a large language model as the "reasoner", and can flexibly leverage visual embeddings, action labels, and free-form descriptions extracted from videos as its input. We evaluate Vamos on four complementary video understanding benchmarks, Ego4D, Next-QA, IntentQA, and EgoSchema, on its capability to model temporal dynamics, encode visual history, and perform reasoning. Surprisingly, we observe that text-based representations consistently achieve competitive performance on all benchmarks, and that visual embeddings provide marginal or no performance improvement, demonstrating the effectiveness of text-based video representation in the LLM era. We perform extensive ablation study and qualitative analysis to support our observations, and achieve state-of-the-art performance on three benchmarks.
Anomaly detection is a crucial task across different domains and data types. However, existing anomaly detection models are often designed for specific domains and modalities. This study explores the use of GPT-4V(ision), a powerful visual-linguistic model, to address anomaly detection tasks in a generic manner. We investigate the application of GPT-4V in multi-modality, multi-domain anomaly detection tasks, including image, video, point cloud, and time series data, across multiple application areas, such as industrial, medical, logical, video, 3D anomaly detection, and localization tasks. To enhance GPT-4V's performance, we incorporate different kinds of additional cues such as class information, human expertise, and reference images as prompts.Based on our experiments, GPT-4V proves to be highly effective in detecting and explaining global and fine-grained semantic patterns in zero/one-shot anomaly detection. This enables accurate differentiation between normal and abnormal instances. Although we conducted extensive evaluations in this study, there is still room for future evaluation to further exploit GPT-4V's generic anomaly detection capacity from different aspects. These include exploring quantitative metrics, expanding evaluation benchmarks, incorporating multi-round interactions, and incorporating human feedback loops. Nevertheless, GPT-4V exhibits promising performance in generic anomaly detection and understanding, thus opening up a new avenue for anomaly detection.
* Work in progress. Evaluated GPT-4V on 4 modalities, 9 tasks, and 15
datasets. The first three authors contribute equally
Modular neural networks without additional training have recently been shown to surpass end-to-end neural networks on challenging vision-language tasks. The latest such methods simultaneously introduce LLM-based code generation to build programs and a number of skill-specific, task-oriented modules to execute them. In this paper, we focus on ViperGPT and ask where its additional performance comes from and how much is due to the (state-of-art, end-to-end) BLIP-2 model it subsumes vs. additional symbolic components. To do so, we conduct a controlled study (comparing end-to-end, modular, and prompting-based methods across several VQA benchmarks). We find that ViperGPT's reported gains over BLIP-2 can be attributed to its selection of task-specific modules, and when we run ViperGPT using a more task-agnostic selection of modules, these gains go away. Additionally, ViperGPT retains much of its performance if we make prominent alterations to its selection of modules: e.g. removing or retaining only BLIP-2. Finally, we compare ViperGPT against a prompting-based decomposition strategy and find that, on some benchmarks, modular approaches significantly benefit by representing subtasks with natural language, instead of code.
Recognition and reasoning are two pillars of visual understanding. However, these tasks have an imbalance in focus; whereas recent advances in neural networks have shown strong empirical performance in visual recognition, there has been comparably much less success in solving visual reasoning. Intuitively, unifying these two tasks under a singular framework is desirable, as they are mutually dependent and beneficial. Motivated by the recent success of multi-task transformers for visual recognition and language understanding, we propose a unified neural architecture for visual recognition and reasoning with a generic interface (e.g., tokens) for both. Our framework enables the principled investigation of how different visual recognition tasks, datasets, and inductive biases can help enable spatiotemporal reasoning capabilities. Noticeably, we find that object detection, which requires spatial localization of individual objects, is the most beneficial recognition task for reasoning. We further demonstrate via probing that implicit object-centric representations emerge automatically inside our framework. Intriguingly, we discover that certain architectural choices such as the backbone model of the visual encoder have a significant impact on visual reasoning, but little on object detection. Given the results of our experiments, we believe that visual reasoning should be considered as a first-class citizen alongside visual recognition, as they are strongly correlated but benefit from potentially different design choices.
Decision making via sequence modeling aims to mimic the success of language models, where actions taken by an embodied agent are modeled as tokens to predict. Despite their promising performance, it remains unclear if embodied sequence modeling leads to the emergence of internal representations that represent the environmental state information. A model that lacks abstract state representations would be liable to make decisions based on surface statistics which fail to generalize. We take the BabyAI environment, a grid world in which language-conditioned navigation tasks are performed, and build a sequence modeling Transformer, which takes a language instruction, a sequence of actions, and environmental observations as its inputs. In order to investigate the emergence of abstract state representations, we design a "blindfolded" navigation task, where only the initial environmental layout, the language instruction, and the action sequence to complete the task are available for training. Our probing results show that intermediate environmental layouts can be reasonably reconstructed from the internal activations of a trained model, and that language instructions play a role in the reconstruction accuracy. Our results suggest that many key features of state representations can emerge via embodied sequence modeling, supporting an optimistic outlook for applications of sequence modeling objectives to more complex embodied decision-making domains.
This paper focuses on building object-centric representations for long-term action anticipation in videos. Our key motivation is that objects provide important cues to recognize and predict human-object interactions, especially when the predictions are longer term, as an observed "background" object could be used by the human actor in the future. We observe that existing object-based video recognition frameworks either assume the existence of in-domain supervised object detectors or follow a fully weakly-supervised pipeline to infer object locations from action labels. We propose to build object-centric video representations by leveraging visual-language pretrained models. This is achieved by "object prompts", an approach to extract task-specific object-centric representations from general-purpose pretrained models without finetuning. To recognize and predict human-object interactions, we use a Transformer-based neural architecture which allows the "retrieval" of relevant objects for action anticipation at various time scales. We conduct extensive evaluations on the Ego4D, 50Salads, and EGTEA Gaze+ benchmarks. Both quantitative and qualitative results confirm the effectiveness of our proposed method.