Video topic segmentation unveils the coarse-grained semantic structure underlying videos and is essential for other video understanding tasks. Given the recent surge in multi-modal, relying solely on a single modality is arguably insufficient. On the other hand, prior solutions for similar tasks like video scene/shot segmentation cater to short videos with clear visual shifts but falter for long videos with subtle changes, such as livestreams. In this paper, we introduce a multi-modal video topic segmenter that utilizes both video transcripts and frames, bolstered by a cross-modal attention mechanism. Furthermore, we propose a dual-contrastive learning framework adhering to the unsupervised domain adaptation paradigm, enhancing our model's adaptability to longer, more semantically complex videos. Experiments on short and long video corpora demonstrate that our proposed solution, significantly surpasses baseline methods in terms of both accuracy and transferability, in both intra- and cross-domain settings.
Most real-world networks are noisy and incomplete samples from an unknown target distribution. Refining them by correcting corruptions or inferring unobserved regions typically improves downstream performance. Inspired by the impressive generative capabilities that have been used to correct corruptions in images, and the similarities between "in-painting" and filling in missing nodes and edges conditioned on the observed graph, we propose a novel graph generative framework, SGDM, which is based on subgraph diffusion. Our framework not only improves the scalability and fidelity of graph diffusion models, but also leverages the reverse process to perform novel, conditional generation tasks. In particular, through extensive empirical analysis and a set of novel metrics, we demonstrate that our proposed model effectively supports the following refinement tasks for partially observable networks: T1: denoising extraneous subgraphs, T2: expanding existing subgraphs and T3: performing "style" transfer by regenerating a particular subgraph to match the characteristics of a different node or subgraph.
Aspect-based meeting transcript summarization aims to produce multiple summaries, each focusing on one aspect of content in a meeting transcript. It is challenging as sentences related to different aspects can mingle together, and those relevant to a specific aspect can be scattered throughout the long transcript of a meeting. The traditional summarization methods produce one summary mixing information of all aspects, which cannot deal with the above challenges of aspect-based meeting transcript summarization. In this paper, we propose a two-stage method for aspect-based meeting transcript summarization. To select the input content related to specific aspects, we train a sentence classifier on a dataset constructed from the AMI corpus with pseudo-labeling. Then we merge the sentences selected for a specific aspect as the input for the summarizer to produce the aspect-based summary. Experimental results on the AMI corpus outperform many strong baselines, which verifies the effectiveness of our proposed method.
Aspect-based sentiment Analysis (ABSA) delves into understanding sentiments specific to distinct elements within textual content. It aims to analyze user-generated reviews to determine a) the target entity being reviewed, b) the high-level aspect to which it belongs, c) the sentiment words used to express the opinion, and d) the sentiment expressed toward the targets and the aspects. While various benchmark datasets have fostered advancements in ABSA, they often come with domain limitations and data granularity challenges. Addressing these, we introduce the OATS dataset, which encompasses three fresh domains and consists of 20,000 sentence-level quadruples and 13,000 review-level tuples. Our initiative seeks to bridge specific observed gaps: the recurrent focus on familiar domains like restaurants and laptops, limited data for intricate quadruple extraction tasks, and an occasional oversight of the synergy between sentence and review-level sentiments. Moreover, to elucidate OATS's potential and shed light on various ABSA subtasks that OATS can solve, we conducted in-domain and cross-domain experiments, establishing initial baselines. We hope the OATS dataset augments current resources, paving the way for an encompassing exploration of ABSA.
The driving factors behind the development of large language models (LLMs) with impressive learning capabilities are their colossal model sizes and extensive training datasets. Along with the progress in natural language processing, LLMs have been frequently made accessible to the public to foster deeper investigation and applications. However, when it comes to training datasets for these LLMs, especially the recent state-of-the-art models, they are often not fully disclosed. Creating training data for high-performing LLMs involves extensive cleaning and deduplication to ensure the necessary level of quality. The lack of transparency for training data has thus hampered research on attributing and addressing hallucination and bias issues in LLMs, hindering replication efforts and further advancements in the community. These challenges become even more pronounced in multilingual learning scenarios, where the available multilingual text datasets are often inadequately collected and cleaned. Consequently, there is a lack of open-source and readily usable dataset to effectively train LLMs in multiple languages. To overcome this issue, we present CulturaX, a substantial multilingual dataset with 6.3 trillion tokens in 167 languages, tailored for LLM development. Our dataset undergoes meticulous cleaning and deduplication through a rigorous pipeline of multiple stages to accomplish the best quality for model training, including language identification, URL-based filtering, metric-based cleaning, document refinement, and data deduplication. CulturaX is fully released to the public in HuggingFace to facilitate research and advancements in multilingual LLMs: https://huggingface.co/datasets/uonlp/CulturaX.
Large Language Models (LLMs) have issues with document question answering (QA) in situations where the document is unable to fit in the small context length of an LLM. To overcome this issue, most existing works focus on retrieving the relevant context from the document, representing them as plain text. However, documents such as PDFs, web pages, and presentations are naturally structured with different pages, tables, sections, and so on. Representing such structured documents as plain text is incongruous with the user's mental model of these documents with rich structure. When a system has to query the document for context, this incongruity is brought to the fore, and seemingly trivial questions can trip up the QA system. To bridge this fundamental gap in handling structured documents, we propose an approach called PDFTriage that enables models to retrieve the context based on either structure or content. Our experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed PDFTriage-augmented models across several classes of questions where existing retrieval-augmented LLMs fail. To facilitate further research on this fundamental problem, we release our benchmark dataset consisting of 900+ human-generated questions over 80 structured documents from 10 different categories of question types for document QA.
Multilingual semantic search is the task of retrieving relevant contents to a query expressed in different language combinations. This requires a better semantic understanding of the user's intent and its contextual meaning. Multilingual semantic search is less explored and more challenging than its monolingual or bilingual counterparts, due to the lack of multilingual parallel resources for this task and the need to circumvent "language bias". In this work, we propose an alignment approach: MAML-Align, specifically for low-resource scenarios. Our approach leverages meta-distillation learning based on MAML, an optimization-based Model-Agnostic Meta-Learner. MAML-Align distills knowledge from a Teacher meta-transfer model T-MAML, specialized in transferring from monolingual to bilingual semantic search, to a Student model S-MAML, which meta-transfers from bilingual to multilingual semantic search. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to extend meta-distillation to a multilingual search application. Our empirical results show that on top of a strong baseline based on sentence transformers, our meta-distillation approach boosts the gains provided by MAML and significantly outperforms naive fine-tuning methods. Furthermore, multilingual meta-distillation learning improves generalization even to unseen languages.
Rapid advancements of large language models (LLMs) have enabled the processing, understanding, and generation of human-like text, with increasing integration into systems that touch our social sphere. Despite this success, these models can learn, perpetuate, and amplify harmful social biases. In this paper, we present a comprehensive survey of bias evaluation and mitigation techniques for LLMs. We first consolidate, formalize, and expand notions of social bias and fairness in natural language processing, defining distinct facets of harm and introducing several desiderata to operationalize fairness for LLMs. We then unify the literature by proposing three intuitive taxonomies, two for bias evaluation, namely metrics and datasets, and one for mitigation. Our first taxonomy of metrics for bias evaluation disambiguates the relationship between metrics and evaluation datasets, and organizes metrics by the different levels at which they operate in a model: embeddings, probabilities, and generated text. Our second taxonomy of datasets for bias evaluation categorizes datasets by their structure as counterfactual inputs or prompts, and identifies the targeted harms and social groups; we also release a consolidation of publicly-available datasets for improved access. Our third taxonomy of techniques for bias mitigation classifies methods by their intervention during pre-processing, in-training, intra-processing, and post-processing, with granular subcategories that elucidate research trends. Finally, we identify open problems and challenges for future work. Synthesizing a wide range of recent research, we aim to provide a clear guide of the existing literature that empowers researchers and practitioners to better understand and prevent the propagation of bias in LLMs.
A key technology for the development of large language models (LLMs) involves instruction tuning that helps align the models' responses with human expectations to realize impressive learning abilities. Two major approaches for instruction tuning characterize supervised fine-tuning (SFT) and reinforcement learning from human feedback (RLHF), which are currently applied to produce the best commercial LLMs (e.g., ChatGPT). To improve the accessibility of LLMs for research and development efforts, various instruction-tuned open-source LLMs have also been introduced recently, e.g., Alpaca, Vicuna, to name a few. However, existing open-source LLMs have only been instruction-tuned for English and a few popular languages, thus hindering their impacts and accessibility to many other languages in the world. Among a few very recent work to explore instruction tuning for LLMs in multiple languages, SFT has been used as the only approach to instruction-tune LLMs for multiple languages. This has left a significant gap for fine-tuned LLMs based on RLHF in diverse languages and raised important questions on how RLHF can boost the performance of multilingual instruction tuning. To overcome this issue, we present Okapi, the first system with instruction-tuned LLMs based on RLHF for multiple languages. Okapi introduces instruction and response-ranked data in 26 diverse languages to facilitate the experiments and development of future multilingual LLM research. We also present benchmark datasets to enable the evaluation of generative LLMs in multiple languages. Our experiments demonstrate the advantages of RLHF for multilingual instruction over SFT for different base models and datasets. Our framework and resources are released at https://github.com/nlp-uoregon/Okapi.