Abduction has long been seen as crucial for narrative comprehension and reasoning about everyday situations. The abductive natural language inference ($\alpha$NLI) task has been proposed, and this narrative text-based task aims to infer the most plausible hypothesis from the candidates given two observations. However, the inter-sentential coherence and the model consistency have not been well exploited in the previous works on this task. In this work, we propose a prompt tuning model $\alpha$-PACE, which takes self-consistency and inter-sentential coherence into consideration. Besides, we propose a general self-consistent framework that considers various narrative sequences (e.g., linear narrative and reverse chronology) for guiding the pre-trained language model in understanding the narrative context of input. We conduct extensive experiments and thorough ablation studies to illustrate the necessity and effectiveness of $\alpha$-PACE. The performance of our method shows significant improvement against extensive competitive baselines.
This paper aims to quantitatively evaluate the performance of ChatGPT, an interactive large language model, on inter-sentential relations such as temporal relations, causal relations, and discourse relations. Given ChatGPT's promising performance across various tasks, we conduct extensive evaluations on the whole test sets of 13 datasets, including temporal and causal relations, PDTB2.0-based and dialogue-based discourse relations, and downstream applications on discourse understanding. To achieve reliable results, we adopt three tailored prompt templates for each task, including the zero-shot prompt template, zero-shot prompt engineering (PE) template, and in-context learning (ICL) prompt template, to establish the initial baseline scores for all popular sentence-pair relation classification tasks for the first time. We find that ChatGPT exhibits strong performance in detecting and reasoning about causal relations, while it may not be proficient in identifying the temporal order between two events. It can recognize most discourse relations with existing explicit discourse connectives, but the implicit discourse relation still remains a challenging task. Meanwhile, ChatGPT performs poorly in the dialogue discourse parsing task that requires structural understanding in a dialogue before being aware of the discourse relation.
Implicit Discourse Relation Recognition (IDRR) is a sophisticated and challenging task to recognize the discourse relations between the arguments with the absence of discourse connectives. The sense labels for each discourse relation follow a hierarchical classification scheme in the annotation process (Prasad et al., 2008), forming a hierarchy structure. Most existing works do not well incorporate the hierarchy structure but focus on the syntax features and the prior knowledge of connectives in the manner of pure text classification. We argue that it is more effective to predict the paths inside the hierarchical tree (e.g., "Comparison -> Contrast -> however") rather than flat labels (e.g., Contrast) or connectives (e.g., however). We propose a prompt-based path prediction method to utilize the interactive information and intrinsic senses among the hierarchy in IDRR. This is the first work that injects such structure information into pre-trained language models via prompt tuning, and the performance of our solution shows significant and consistent improvement against competitive baselines.
With the development of graph kernels and graph representation learning, many superior methods have been proposed to handle scalability and oversmoothing issues on graph structure learning. However, most of those strategies are designed based on practical experience rather than theoretical analysis. In this paper, we use a particular dummy node connecting to all existing vertices without affecting original vertex and edge properties. We further prove that such the dummy node can help build an efficient monomorphic edge-to-vertex transform and an epimorphic inverse to recover the original graph back. It also indicates that adding dummy nodes can preserve local and global structures for better graph representation learning. We extend graph kernels and graph neural networks with dummy nodes and conduct experiments on graph classification and subgraph isomorphism matching tasks. Empirical results demonstrate that taking graphs with dummy nodes as input significantly boosts graph structure learning, and using their edge-to-vertex graphs can also achieve similar results. We also discuss the gain of expressive power from the dummy in neural networks.
Relation extraction is an important task in knowledge acquisition and text understanding. Existing works mainly focus on improving relation extraction by extracting effective features or designing reasonable model structures. However, few works have focused on how to validate and correct the results generated by the existing relation extraction models. We argue that validation is an important and promising direction to further improve the performance of relation extraction. In this paper, we explore the possibility of using question answering as validation. Specifically, we propose a novel question-answering based framework to validate the results from relation extraction models. Our proposed framework can be easily applied to existing relation classifiers without any additional information. We conduct extensive experiments on the popular NYT dataset to evaluate the proposed framework, and observe consistent improvements over five strong baselines.