Pre-trained language models (PLMs) that achieve success in applications are susceptible to adversarial attack methods that are capable of generating adversarial examples with minor perturbations. Although recent attack methods can achieve a relatively high attack success rate (ASR), our observation shows that the generated adversarial examples have a different data distribution compared with the original examples. Specifically, these adversarial examples exhibit lower confidence levels and higher distance to the training data distribution. As a result, they are easy to detect using very simple detection methods, diminishing the actual effectiveness of these attack methods. To solve this problem, we propose a Distribution-Aware LoRA-based Adversarial Attack (DALA) method, which considers the distribution shift of adversarial examples to improve attack effectiveness under detection methods. We further design a new evaluation metric NASR combining ASR and detection for the attack task. We conduct experiments on four widely-used datasets and validate the attack effectiveness on ASR and NASR of the adversarial examples generated by DALA on the BERT-base model and the black-box LLaMA2-7b model.
Aspect-based meeting transcript summarization aims to produce multiple summaries, each focusing on one aspect of content in a meeting transcript. It is challenging as sentences related to different aspects can mingle together, and those relevant to a specific aspect can be scattered throughout the long transcript of a meeting. The traditional summarization methods produce one summary mixing information of all aspects, which cannot deal with the above challenges of aspect-based meeting transcript summarization. In this paper, we propose a two-stage method for aspect-based meeting transcript summarization. To select the input content related to specific aspects, we train a sentence classifier on a dataset constructed from the AMI corpus with pseudo-labeling. Then we merge the sentences selected for a specific aspect as the input for the summarizer to produce the aspect-based summary. Experimental results on the AMI corpus outperform many strong baselines, which verifies the effectiveness of our proposed method.
Product attribute value extraction is an important task in e-Commerce which can help several downstream applications such as product search and recommendation. Most previous models handle this task using sequence labeling or question answering method which rely on the sequential position information of values in the product text and are vulnerable to data discrepancy between training and testing. This limits their generalization ability to real-world scenario in which each product can have multiple descriptions across various shopping platforms with different composition of text and style. They also have limited zero-shot ability to new values. In this paper, we propose a multi-task learning model with value generation/classification and attribute prediction called JPAVE to predict values without the necessity of position information of values in the text. Furthermore, the copy mechanism in value generator and the value attention module in value classifier help our model address the data discrepancy issue by only focusing on the relevant part of input text and ignoring other information which causes the discrepancy issue such as sentence structure in the text. Besides, two variants of our model are designed for open-world and closed-world scenarios. In addition, copy mechanism introduced in the first variant based on value generation can improve its zero-shot ability for identifying unseen values. Experimental results on a public dataset demonstrate the superiority of our model compared with strong baselines and its generalization ability of predicting new values.
Large Language Models (LLMs) can generate biased and toxic responses. Yet most prior work on LLM gender bias evaluation requires predefined gender-related phrases or gender stereotypes, which are challenging to be comprehensively collected and are limited to explicit bias evaluation. In addition, we believe that instances devoid of gender-related language or explicit stereotypes in inputs can still induce gender bias in LLMs. Thus, in this work, we propose a conditional text generation mechanism without the need for predefined gender phrases and stereotypes. This approach employs three types of inputs generated through three distinct strategies to probe LLMs, aiming to show evidence of explicit and implicit gender biases in LLMs. We also utilize explicit and implicit evaluation metrics to evaluate gender bias in LLMs under different strategies. Our experiments demonstrate that an increased model size does not consistently lead to enhanced fairness and all tested LLMs exhibit explicit and/or implicit gender bias, even when explicit gender stereotypes are absent in the inputs.
We demonstrate a compact, cost-effective snapshot spectral imaging system named Aperture Diffraction Imaging Spectrometer (ADIS), which consists only of an imaging lens with an ultra-thin orthogonal aperture mask and a mosaic filter sensor, requiring no additional physical footprint compared to common RGB cameras. Then we introduce a new optical design that each point in the object space is multiplexed to discrete encoding locations on the mosaic filter sensor by diffraction-based spatial-spectral projection engineering generated from the orthogonal mask. The orthogonal projection is uniformly accepted to obtain a weakly calibration-dependent data form to enhance modulation robustness. Meanwhile, the Cascade Shift-Shuffle Spectral Transformer (CSST) with strong perception of the diffraction degeneration is designed to solve a sparsity-constrained inverse problem, realizing the volume reconstruction from 2D measurements with Large amount of aliasing. Our system is evaluated by elaborating the imaging optical theory and reconstruction algorithm with demonstrating the experimental imaging under a single exposure. Ultimately, we achieve the sub-super-pixel spatial resolution and high spectral resolution imaging. The code will be available at: https://github.com/Krito-ex/CSST.
Question answering on tabular data (a.k.a TableQA), which aims at generating answers to questions grounded on a provided table, has gained significant attention recently. Prior work primarily produces concise factual responses through information extraction from individual or limited table cells, lacking the ability to reason across diverse table cells. Yet, the realm of free-form TableQA, which demands intricate strategies for selecting relevant table cells and the sophisticated integration and inference of discrete data fragments, remains mostly unexplored. To this end, this paper proposes a generalized three-stage approach: Table-to- Graph conversion and cell localizing, external knowledge retrieval, and the fusion of table and text (called TAG-QA), to address the challenge of inferring long free-form answers in generative TableQA. In particular, TAG-QA (1) locates relevant table cells using a graph neural network to gather intersecting cells between relevant rows and columns, (2) leverages external knowledge from Wikipedia, and (3) generates answers by integrating both tabular data and natural linguistic information. Experiments showcase the superior capabilities of TAG-QA in generating sentences that are both faithful and coherent, particularly when compared to several state-of-the-art baselines. Notably, TAG-QA surpasses the robust pipeline-based baseline TAPAS by 17% and 14% in terms of BLEU-4 and PARENT F-score, respectively. Furthermore, TAG-QA outperforms the end-to-end model T5 by 16% and 12% on BLEU-4 and PARENT F-score, respectively.
Named Entity Recognition (NER) aims to extract and classify entity mentions in the text into pre-defined types (e.g., organization or person name). Recently, many works have been proposed to shape the NER as a machine reading comprehension problem (also termed MRC-based NER), in which entity recognition is achieved by answering the formulated questions related to pre-defined entity types through MRC, based on the contexts. However, these works ignore the label dependencies among entity types, which are critical for precisely recognizing named entities. In this paper, we propose to incorporate the label dependencies among entity types into a multi-task learning framework for better MRC-based NER. We decompose MRC-based NER into multiple tasks and use a self-attention module to capture label dependencies. Comprehensive experiments on both nested NER and flat NER datasets are conducted to validate the effectiveness of the proposed Multi-NER. Experimental results show that Multi-NER can achieve better performance on all datasets.
Text segmentation tasks have a very wide range of application values, such as image editing, style transfer, watermark removal, etc.However, existing public datasets are of poor quality of pixel-level labels that have been shown to be notoriously costly to acquire, both in terms of money and time. At the same time, when pretraining is performed on synthetic datasets, the data distribution of the synthetic datasets is far from the data distribution in the real scene. These all pose a huge challenge to the current pixel-level text segmentation algorithms.To alleviate the above problems, we propose a self-supervised scene text segmentation algorithm with layered decoupling of representations derived from the object-centric manner to segment images into texts and background. In our method, we propose two novel designs which include Region Query Module and Representation Consistency Constraints adapting to the unique properties of text as complements to Auto Encoder, which improves the network's sensitivity to texts.For this unique design, we treat the polygon-level masks predicted by the text localization model as extra input information, and neither utilize any pixel-level mask annotations for training stage nor pretrain on synthetic datasets.Extensive experiments show the effectiveness of the method proposed. On several public scene text datasets, our method outperforms the state-of-the-art unsupervised segmentation algorithms.
Position bias, the phenomenon whereby users tend to focus on higher-ranked items of the search result list regardless of the actual relevance to queries, is prevailing in many ranking systems. Position bias in training data biases the ranking model, leading to increasingly unfair item rankings, click-through-rate (CTR), and conversion rate (CVR) predictions. To jointly mitigate position bias in both item CTR and CVR prediction, we propose two position-bias-free CTR and CVR prediction models: Position-Aware Click-Conversion (PACC) and PACC via Position Embedding (PACC-PE). PACC is built upon probability decomposition and models position information as a probability. PACC-PE utilizes neural networks to model product-specific position information as embedding. Experiments on the E-commerce sponsored product search dataset show that our proposed models have better ranking effectiveness and can greatly alleviate position bias in both CTR and CVR prediction.