Task-Oriented Parsing (TOP) enables conversational assistants to interpret user commands expressed in natural language, transforming them into structured outputs that combine elements of both natural language and intent/slot tags. Recently, Large Language Models (LLMs) have achieved impressive performance in synthesizing computer programs based on a natural language prompt, mitigating the gap between natural language and structured programs. Our paper focuses on harnessing the capabilities of LLMs for semantic parsing tasks, addressing the following three key research questions: 1) How can LLMs be effectively utilized for semantic parsing tasks? 2) What defines an effective prompt? and 3) How can LLM overcome the length constraint and streamline prompt design by including all examples as prompts? We introduce k Nearest Neighbor In-Context Learning(kNN-ICL), which simplifies prompt engineering by allowing it to be built on top of any design strategy while providing access to all demo examples. Extensive experiments show that: 1)Simple ICL without kNN search can achieve a comparable performance with strong supervised models on the TOP tasks, and 2) kNN-ICL significantly improves the comprehension of complex requests by seamlessly integrating ICL with a nearest-neighbor approach. Notably, this enhancement is achieved without the need for additional data or specialized prompts.
In intent detection tasks, leveraging meaningful semantic information from intent labels can be particularly beneficial for few-shot scenarios. However, existing few-shot intent detection methods either ignore the intent labels, (e.g. treating intents as indices) or do not fully utilize this information (e.g. only using part of the intent labels). In this work, we present an end-to-end One-to-All system that enables the comparison of an input utterance with all label candidates. The system can then fully utilize label semantics in this way. Experiments on three few-shot intent detection tasks demonstrate that One-to-All is especially effective when the training resource is extremely scarce, achieving state-of-the-art performance in 1-, 3- and 5-shot settings. Moreover, we present a novel pretraining strategy for our model that utilizes indirect supervision from paraphrasing, enabling zero-shot cross-domain generalization on intent detection tasks. Our code is at https://github.com/jiangshdd/AllLablesTogether.
Many NLP tasks can be regarded as a selection problem from a set of options, such as classification tasks, multi-choice question answering, etc. Textual entailment (TE) has been shown as the state-of-the-art (SOTA) approach to dealing with those selection problems. TE treats input texts as premises (P), options as hypotheses (H), then handles the selection problem by modeling (P, H) pairwise. Two limitations: first, the pairwise modeling is unaware of other options, which is less intuitive since humans often determine the best options by comparing competing candidates; second, the inference process of pairwise TE is time-consuming, especially when the option space is large. To deal with the two issues, this work first proposes a contextualized TE model (Context-TE) by appending other k options as the context of the current (P, H) modeling. Context-TE is able to learn more reliable decision for the H since it considers various context. Second, we speed up Context-TE by coming up with Parallel-TE, which learns the decisions of multiple options simultaneously. Parallel-TE significantly improves the inference speed while keeping comparable performance with Context-TE. Our methods are evaluated on three tasks (ultra-fine entity typing, intent detection and multi-choice QA) that are typical selection problems with different sizes of options. Experiments show our models set new SOTA performance; particularly, Parallel-TE is faster than the pairwise TE by k times in inference. Our code is publicly available at https://github.com/jiangshdd/LearningToSelect.
The COVID-19 pandemic poses a great threat to global public health. Meanwhile, there is massive misinformation associated with the pandemic which advocates unfounded or unscientific claims. Even major social media and news outlets have made an extra effort in debunking COVID-19 misinformation, most of the fact-checking information is in English, whereas some unmoderated COVID-19 misinformation is still circulating in other languages, threatening the health of less-informed people in immigrant communities and developing countries. In this paper, we make the first attempt to detect COVID-19 misinformation in a low-resource language (Chinese) only using the fact-checked news in a high-resource language (English). We start by curating a Chinese real&fake news dataset according to existing fact-checking information. Then, we propose a deep learning framework named CrossFake to jointly encode the cross-lingual news body texts and capture the news content as much as possible. Empirical results on our dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of CrossFake under the cross-lingual setting and it also outperforms several monolingual and cross-lingual fake news detectors. The dataset is available at https://github.com/YingtongDou/CrossFake.