Low-Rank Adaptation (LoRA) provides an effective yet efficient solution for fine-tuning large language models (LLM). The modular and plug-and-play nature of LoRA enables the integration of diverse domain-specific LoRAs to enhance the capabilities of LLMs. Previous research on exploiting multiple LoRAs either focuses on specific isolated downstream tasks or fixes the selection of LoRAs during training. However, in real-world scenarios, LLMs receive diverse prompts covering different tasks, and the pool of candidate LoRAs is often dynamically updated. To bridge this gap, we propose LoraRetriever, a retrieve-then-compose framework that adaptively retrieves and composes multiple LoRAs according to the input prompts. LoraRetriever contains three main components: firstly, identifying and retrieving LoRAs relevant to the given input; secondly, formulating strategies for effectively integrating the retrieved LoRAs; and thirdly, developing efficient batch inference to accommodate heterogeneous requests. Experimental results indicate that LoraRetriever consistently outperforms the baselines, highlighting its practical effectiveness and versatility.
In this work, we leverage the intrinsic segmentation of language sequences and design a new positional encoding method called Bilevel Positional Encoding (BiPE). For each position, our BiPE blends an intra-segment encoding and an inter-segment encoding. The intra-segment encoding identifies the locations within a segment and helps the model capture the semantic information therein via absolute positional encoding. The inter-segment encoding specifies the segment index, models the relationships between segments, and aims to improve extrapolation capabilities via relative positional encoding. Theoretical analysis shows this disentanglement of positional information makes learning more effective. The empirical results also show that our BiPE has superior length extrapolation capabilities across a wide range of tasks in diverse text modalities.
* 17 pages, 7 figures, 8 tables; Working in Progress
Strong Artificial Intelligence (Strong AI) or Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) with abstract reasoning ability is the goal of next-generation AI. Recent advancements in Large Language Models (LLMs), along with the emerging field of Multimodal Large Language Models (MLLMs), have demonstrated impressive capabilities across a wide range of multimodal tasks and applications. Particularly, various MLLMs, each with distinct model architectures, training data, and training stages, have been evaluated across a broad range of MLLM benchmarks. These studies have, to varying degrees, revealed different aspects of the current capabilities of MLLMs. However, the reasoning abilities of MLLMs have not been systematically investigated. In this survey, we comprehensively review the existing evaluation protocols of multimodal reasoning, categorize and illustrate the frontiers of MLLMs, introduce recent trends in applications of MLLMs on reasoning-intensive tasks, and finally discuss current practices and future directions. We believe our survey establishes a solid base and sheds light on this important topic, multimodal reasoning.
Multi-modal Large Language Models (MLLMs) are increasingly prominent in the field of artificial intelligence. Visual instruction fine-tuning (IFT) is a vital process for aligning MLLMs' output with user's intentions. High-quality and diversified instruction following data is the key to this fine-tuning process. Recent studies propose to construct visual IFT datasets through a multifaceted approach: transforming existing datasets with rule-based templates, employing GPT-4 for rewriting annotations, and utilizing GPT-4V for visual dataset pseudo-labeling. LLaVA-1.5 adopted similar approach and construct LLaVA-mix-665k, which is one of the simplest, most widely used, yet most effective IFT datasets today. Notably, when properly fine-tuned with this dataset, MLLMs can achieve state-of-the-art performance on several benchmarks. However, we noticed that models trained with this dataset often struggle to follow user instructions properly in multi-round dialog. In addition, tradition caption and VQA evaluation benchmarks, with their closed-form evaluation structure, are not fully equipped to assess the capabilities of modern open-ended generative MLLMs. This problem is not unique to the LLaVA-mix-665k dataset, but may be a potential issue in all IFT datasets constructed from image captioning or VQA sources, though the extent of this issue may vary. We argue that datasets with diverse and high-quality detailed instruction following annotations are essential and adequate for MLLMs IFT. In this work, we establish a new IFT dataset, with images sourced from the COCO dataset along with more diverse instructions. Our experiments show that when fine-tuned with out proposed dataset, MLLMs achieve better performance on open-ended evaluation benchmarks in both single-round and multi-round dialog setting.
In this paper, we introduce "InfiAgent-DABench", the first benchmark specifically designed to evaluate LLM-based agents in data analysis tasks. This benchmark contains DAEval, a dataset consisting of 311 data analysis questions derived from 55 CSV files, and an agent framework to evaluate LLMs as data analysis agents. We adopt a format-prompting technique, ensuring questions to be closed-form that can be automatically evaluated. Our extensive benchmarking of 23 state-of-the-art LLMs uncovers the current challenges encountered in data analysis tasks. In addition, we have developed DAAgent, a specialized agent trained on instruction-tuning datasets. Evaluation datasets and toolkits for InfiAgent-DABench are released at https://github.com/InfiAgent/InfiAgent.
Large language models (LLMs) have made significant progress in code generation tasks, but their performance in tackling programming problems with complex data structures and algorithms remains suboptimal. To address this issue, we propose an in-context learning approach that guides LLMs to debug by using a "print debugging" method, which involves inserting print statements to trace and analysing logs for fixing the bug. We collect a Leetcode problem dataset and evaluate our method using the Leetcode online judging system. Experiments with GPT-4 demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, outperforming rubber duck debugging in easy and medium-level Leetcode problems by 1.5% and 17.9%.
Online to offline recommendation strongly correlates with the user and service's spatiotemporal information, therefore calling for a higher degree of model personalization. The traditional methodology is based on a uniform model structure trained by collected centralized data, which is unlikely to capture all user patterns over different geographical areas or time periods. To tackle this challenge, we propose a geographical group-specific modeling method called GeoGrouse, which simultaneously studies the common knowledge as well as group-specific knowledge of user preferences. An automatic grouping paradigm is employed and verified based on users' geographical grouping indicators. Offline and online experiments are conducted to verify the effectiveness of our approach, and substantial business improvement is achieved.
Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) show promising results for graph tasks. However, existing GNNs' generalization ability will degrade when there exist distribution shifts between testing and training graph data. The cardinal impetus underlying the severe degeneration is that the GNNs are architected predicated upon the I.I.D assumptions. In such a setting, GNNs are inclined to leverage imperceptible statistical correlations subsisting in the training set to predict, albeit it is a spurious correlation. In this paper, we study the problem of the generalization ability of GNNs in Out-Of-Distribution (OOD) settings. To solve this problem, we propose the Learning to Reweight for Generalizable Graph Neural Network (L2R-GNN) to enhance the generalization ability for achieving satisfactory performance on unseen testing graphs that have different distributions with training graphs. We propose a novel nonlinear graph decorrelation method, which can substantially improve the out-of-distribution generalization ability and compares favorably to previous methods in restraining the over-reduced sample size. The variables of the graph representation are clustered based on the stability of the correlation, and the graph decorrelation method learns weights to remove correlations between the variables of different clusters rather than any two variables. Besides, we interpose an efficacious stochastic algorithm upon bi-level optimization for the L2R-GNN framework, which facilitates simultaneously learning the optimal weights and GNN parameters, and avoids the overfitting problem. Experimental results show that L2R-GNN greatly outperforms baselines on various graph prediction benchmarks under distribution shifts.
Multi-modal Large Language Models (MLLMs) are increasingly prominent in the field of artificial intelligence. These models not only excel in traditional vision-language tasks but also demonstrate impressive performance in contemporary multi-modal benchmarks. Although many of these benchmarks attempt to holistically evaluate MLLMs, they typically concentrate on basic reasoning tasks, often yielding only simple yes/no or multi-choice responses. These methods naturally lead to confusion and difficulties in conclusively determining the reasoning capabilities of MLLMs. To mitigate this issue, we manually curate a benchmark dataset specifically designed for MLLMs, with a focus on complex reasoning tasks. Our benchmark comprises three key reasoning categories: deductive, abductive, and analogical reasoning. The queries in our dataset are intentionally constructed to engage the reasoning capabilities of MLLMs in the process of generating answers. For a fair comparison across various MLLMs, we incorporate intermediate reasoning steps into our evaluation criteria. In instances where an MLLM is unable to produce a definitive answer, its reasoning ability is evaluated by requesting intermediate reasoning steps. If these steps align with our manual annotations, appropriate scores are assigned. This evaluation scheme resembles methods commonly used in human assessments, such as exams or assignments, and represents what we consider a more effective assessment technique compared with existing benchmarks. We evaluate a selection of representative MLLMs using this rigorously developed open-ended multi-step elaborate reasoning benchmark, designed to challenge and accurately measure their reasoning capabilities. The code and data will be released at https://infimm.github.io/InfiMM-Eval/