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Xiaotian Han

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CORE-MM: Complex Open-Ended Reasoning Evaluation For Multi-Modal Large Language Models

Nov 20, 2023
Xiaotian Han, Quanzeng You, Yongfei Liu, Wentao Chen, Huangjie Zheng, Khalil Mrini, Xudong Lin, Yiqi Wang, Bohan Zhai, Jianbo Yuan, Heng Wang, Hongxia Yang

Multi-modal Large Language Models (MLLMs) are increasingly prominent in the field of artificial intelligence. These models not only excel in traditional vision-language tasks but also demonstrate impressive performance in contemporary multi-modal benchmarks. Although many of these benchmarks attempt to holistically evaluate MLLMs, they typically concentrate on basic reasoning tasks, often yielding only simple yes/no or multi-choice responses. These methods naturally lead to confusion and difficulties in conclusively determining the reasoning capabilities of MLLMs. To mitigate this issue, we manually curate a benchmark dataset specifically designed for MLLMs, with a focus on complex reasoning tasks. Our benchmark comprises three key reasoning categories: deductive, abductive, and analogical reasoning. The queries in our dataset are intentionally constructed to engage the reasoning capabilities of MLLMs in the process of generating answers. For a fair comparison across various MLLMs, we incorporate intermediate reasoning steps into our evaluation criteria. In instances where an MLLM is unable to produce a definitive answer, its reasoning ability is evaluated by requesting intermediate reasoning steps. If these steps align with our manual annotations, appropriate scores are assigned. This evaluation scheme resembles methods commonly used in human assessments, such as exams or assignments, and represents what we consider a more effective assessment technique compared with existing benchmarks. We evaluate a selection of representative MLLMs using this rigorously developed open-ended multi-step elaborate reasoning benchmark, designed to challenge and accurately measure their reasoning capabilities. The code and data will be released at

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Marginal Nodes Matter: Towards Structure Fairness in Graphs

Oct 23, 2023
Xiaotian Han, Kaixiong Zhou, Ting-Hsiang Wang, Jundong Li, Fei Wang, Na Zou

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In social network, a person located at the periphery region (marginal node) is likely to be treated unfairly when compared with the persons at the center. While existing fairness works on graphs mainly focus on protecting sensitive attributes (e.g., age and gender), the fairness incurred by the graph structure should also be given attention. On the other hand, the information aggregation mechanism of graph neural networks amplifies such structure unfairness, as marginal nodes are often far away from other nodes. In this paper, we focus on novel fairness incurred by the graph structure on graph neural networks, named \emph{structure fairness}. Specifically, we first analyzed multiple graphs and observed that marginal nodes in graphs have a worse performance of downstream tasks than others in graph neural networks. Motivated by the observation, we propose \textbf{S}tructural \textbf{Fair} \textbf{G}raph \textbf{N}eural \textbf{N}etwork (SFairGNN), which combines neighborhood expansion based structure debiasing with hop-aware attentive information aggregation to achieve structure fairness. Our experiments show \SFairGNN can significantly improve structure fairness while maintaining overall performance in the downstream tasks.

* SIGKDD Explorations (To Appear) 
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GrowLength: Accelerating LLMs Pretraining by Progressively Growing Training Length

Oct 01, 2023
Hongye Jin, Xiaotian Han, Jingfeng Yang, Zhimeng Jiang, Chia-Yuan Chang, Xia Hu

The evolving sophistication and intricacies of Large Language Models (LLMs) yield unprecedented advancements, yet they simultaneously demand considerable computational resources and incur significant costs. To alleviate these challenges, this paper introduces a novel, simple, and effective method named ``\growlength'' to accelerate the pretraining process of LLMs. Our method progressively increases the training length throughout the pretraining phase, thereby mitigating computational costs and enhancing efficiency. For instance, it begins with a sequence length of 128 and progressively extends to 4096. This approach enables models to process a larger number of tokens within limited time frames, potentially boosting their performance. In other words, the efficiency gain is derived from training with shorter sequences optimizing the utilization of resources. Our extensive experiments with various state-of-the-art LLMs have revealed that models trained using our method not only converge more swiftly but also exhibit superior performance metrics compared to those trained with existing methods. Furthermore, our method for LLMs pretraining acceleration does not require any additional engineering efforts, making it a practical solution in the realm of LLMs.

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On the Equivalence of Graph Convolution and Mixup

Sep 29, 2023
Xiaotian Han, Hanqing Zeng, Yu Chen, Shaoliang Nie, Jingzhou Liu, Kanika Narang, Zahra Shakeri, Karthik Abinav Sankararaman, Song Jiang, Madian Khabsa, Qifan Wang, Xia Hu

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This paper investigates the relationship between graph convolution and Mixup techniques. Graph convolution in a graph neural network involves aggregating features from neighboring samples to learn representative features for a specific node or sample. On the other hand, Mixup is a data augmentation technique that generates new examples by averaging features and one-hot labels from multiple samples. One commonality between these techniques is their utilization of information from multiple samples to derive feature representation. This study aims to explore whether a connection exists between these two approaches. Our investigation reveals that, under two mild conditions, graph convolution can be viewed as a specialized form of Mixup that is applied during both the training and testing phases. The two conditions are: 1) \textit{Homophily Relabel} - assigning the target node's label to all its neighbors, and 2) \textit{Test-Time Mixup} - Mixup the feature during the test time. We establish this equivalence mathematically by demonstrating that graph convolution networks (GCN) and simplified graph convolution (SGC) can be expressed as a form of Mixup. We also empirically verify the equivalence by training an MLP using the two conditions to achieve comparable performance.

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Beyond Fairness: Age-Harmless Parkinson's Detection via Voice

Sep 23, 2023
Yicheng Wang, Xiaotian Han, Leisheng Yu, Na Zou

Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder, often manifests as speech and voice dysfunction. While utilizing voice data for PD detection has great potential in clinical applications, the widely used deep learning models currently have fairness issues regarding different ages of onset. These deep models perform well for the elderly group (age $>$ 55) but are less accurate for the young group (age $\leq$ 55). Through our investigation, the discrepancy between the elderly and the young arises due to 1) an imbalanced dataset and 2) the milder symptoms often seen in early-onset patients. However, traditional debiasing methods are impractical as they typically impair the prediction accuracy for the majority group while minimizing the discrepancy. To address this issue, we present a new debiasing method using GradCAM-based feature masking combined with ensemble models, ensuring that neither fairness nor accuracy is compromised. Specifically, the GradCAM-based feature masking selectively obscures age-related features in the input voice data while preserving essential information for PD detection. The ensemble models further improve the prediction accuracy for the minority (young group). Our approach effectively improves detection accuracy for early-onset patients without sacrificing performance for the elderly group. Additionally, we propose a two-step detection strategy for the young group, offering a practical risk assessment for potential early-onset PD patients.

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Towards Assumption-free Bias Mitigation

Jul 09, 2023
Chia-Yuan Chang, Yu-Neng Chuang, Kwei-Herng Lai, Xiaotian Han, Xia Hu, Na Zou

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Despite the impressive prediction ability, machine learning models show discrimination towards certain demographics and suffer from unfair prediction behaviors. To alleviate the discrimination, extensive studies focus on eliminating the unequal distribution of sensitive attributes via multiple approaches. However, due to privacy concerns, sensitive attributes are often either unavailable or missing in real-world scenarios. Therefore, several existing works alleviate the bias without sensitive attributes. Those studies face challenges, either in inaccurate predictions of sensitive attributes or the need to mitigate unequal distribution of manually defined non-sensitive attributes related to bias. The latter requires strong assumptions about the correlation between sensitive and non-sensitive attributes. As data distribution and task goals vary, the strong assumption on non-sensitive attributes may not be valid and require domain expertise. In this work, we propose an assumption-free framework to detect the related attributes automatically by modeling feature interaction for bias mitigation. The proposed framework aims to mitigate the unfair impact of identified biased feature interactions. Experimental results on four real-world datasets demonstrate that our proposed framework can significantly alleviate unfair prediction behaviors by considering biased feature interactions.

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FFB: A Fair Fairness Benchmark for In-Processing Group Fairness Methods

Jun 15, 2023
Xiaotian Han, Jianfeng Chi, Yu Chen, Qifan Wang, Han Zhao, Na Zou, Xia Hu

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This paper introduces the Fair Fairness Benchmark (\textsf{FFB}), a benchmarking framework for in-processing group fairness methods. Ensuring fairness in machine learning is critical for ethical and legal compliance. However, there exist challenges in comparing and developing of fairness methods due to inconsistencies in experimental settings, lack of accessible algorithmic implementations, and limited extensibility of current fairness packages and tools. To address these issues, we introduce an open-source, standardized benchmark for evaluating in-processing group fairness methods and provide a comprehensive analysis of state-of-the-art methods to ensure different notions of group fairness. This work offers the following key contributions: the provision of flexible, extensible, minimalistic, and research-oriented open-source code; the establishment of unified fairness method benchmarking pipelines; and extensive benchmarking, which yields key insights from $\mathbf{45,079}$ experiments. We believe our work will significantly facilitate the growth and development of the fairness research community. The benchmark, including code and running logs, is available at

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Harnessing the Power of LLMs in Practice: A Survey on ChatGPT and Beyond

Apr 27, 2023
Jingfeng Yang, Hongye Jin, Ruixiang Tang, Xiaotian Han, Qizhang Feng, Haoming Jiang, Bing Yin, Xia Hu

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This paper presents a comprehensive and practical guide for practitioners and end-users working with Large Language Models (LLMs) in their downstream natural language processing (NLP) tasks. We provide discussions and insights into the usage of LLMs from the perspectives of models, data, and downstream tasks. Firstly, we offer an introduction and brief summary of current GPT- and BERT-style LLMs. Then, we discuss the influence of pre-training data, training data, and test data. Most importantly, we provide a detailed discussion about the use and non-use cases of large language models for various natural language processing tasks, such as knowledge-intensive tasks, traditional natural language understanding tasks, natural language generation tasks, emergent abilities, and considerations for specific tasks.We present various use cases and non-use cases to illustrate the practical applications and limitations of LLMs in real-world scenarios. We also try to understand the importance of data and the specific challenges associated with each NLP task. Furthermore, we explore the impact of spurious biases on LLMs and delve into other essential considerations, such as efficiency, cost, and latency, to ensure a comprehensive understanding of deploying LLMs in practice. This comprehensive guide aims to provide researchers and practitioners with valuable insights and best practices for working with LLMs, thereby enabling the successful implementation of these models in a wide range of NLP tasks. A curated list of practical guide resources of LLMs, regularly updated, can be found at \url{}.

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Does Synthetic Data Generation of LLMs Help Clinical Text Mining?

Mar 08, 2023
Ruixiang Tang, Xiaotian Han, Xiaoqian Jiang, Xia Hu

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Recent advancements in large language models (LLMs) have led to the development of highly potent models like OpenAI's ChatGPT. These models have exhibited exceptional performance in a variety of tasks, such as question answering, essay composition, and code generation. However, their effectiveness in the healthcare sector remains uncertain. In this study, we seek to investigate the potential of ChatGPT to aid in clinical text mining by examining its ability to extract structured information from unstructured healthcare texts, with a focus on biological named entity recognition and relation extraction. However, our preliminary results indicate that employing ChatGPT directly for these tasks resulted in poor performance and raised privacy concerns associated with uploading patients' information to the ChatGPT API. To overcome these limitations, we propose a new training paradigm that involves generating a vast quantity of high-quality synthetic data with labels utilizing ChatGPT and fine-tuning a local model for the downstream task. Our method has resulted in significant improvements in the performance of downstream tasks, improving the F1-score from 23.37% to 63.99% for the named entity recognition task and from 75.86% to 83.59% for the relation extraction task. Furthermore, generating data using ChatGPT can significantly reduce the time and effort required for data collection and labeling, as well as mitigate data privacy concerns. In summary, the proposed framework presents a promising solution to enhance the applicability of LLM models to clinical text mining.

* 10 pages, 8 tables, 4 figures 
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Weight Perturbation Can Help Fairness under Distribution Shift

Mar 06, 2023
Zhimeng Jiang, Xiaotian Han, Hongye Jin, Guanchu Wang, Na Zou, Xia Hu

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Fairness in machine learning has attracted increasing attention in recent years. The fairness methods improving algorithmic fairness for in-distribution data may not perform well under distribution shift. In this paper, we first theoretically demonstrate the inherent connection between distribution shift, data perturbation, and weight perturbation. Subsequently, we analyze the sufficient conditions to guarantee fairness (i.e., low demographic parity) for the target dataset, including fairness for the source dataset, and low prediction difference between the source and target dataset for each sensitive attribute group. Motivated by these sufficient conditions, we propose robust fairness regularization (RFR) by considering the worst case within the weight perturbation ball for each sensitive attribute group. In this way, the maximization problem can be simplified as two forward and two backward propagations for each update of model parameters. We evaluate the effectiveness of our proposed RFR algorithm on synthetic and real distribution shifts across various datasets. Experimental results demonstrate that RFR achieves better fairness-accuracy trade-off performance compared with several baselines.

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