AI systems empowered by reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms harbor the immense potential to catalyze societal advancement, yet their deployment is often impeded by significant safety concerns. Particularly in safety-critical applications, researchers have raised concerns about unintended harms or unsafe behaviors of unaligned RL agents. The philosophy of safe reinforcement learning (SafeRL) is to align RL agents with harmless intentions and safe behavioral patterns. In SafeRL, agents learn to develop optimal policies by receiving feedback from the environment, while also fulfilling the requirement of minimizing the risk of unintended harm or unsafe behavior. However, due to the intricate nature of SafeRL algorithm implementation, combining methodologies across various domains presents a formidable challenge. This had led to an absence of a cohesive and efficacious learning framework within the contemporary SafeRL research milieu. In this work, we introduce a foundational framework designed to expedite SafeRL research endeavors. Our comprehensive framework encompasses an array of algorithms spanning different RL domains and places heavy emphasis on safety elements. Our efforts are to make the SafeRL-related research process more streamlined and efficient, therefore facilitating further research in AI safety. Our project is released at: https://github.com/PKU-Alignment/omnisafe.
Learning a generalizable object manipulation policy is vital for an embodied agent to work in complex real-world scenes. Parts, as the shared components in different object categories, have the potential to increase the generalization ability of the manipulation policy and achieve cross-category object manipulation. In this work, we build the first large-scale, part-based cross-category object manipulation benchmark, PartManip, which is composed of 11 object categories, 494 objects, and 1432 tasks in 6 task classes. Compared to previous work, our benchmark is also more diverse and realistic, i.e., having more objects and using sparse-view point cloud as input without oracle information like part segmentation. To tackle the difficulties of vision-based policy learning, we first train a state-based expert with our proposed part-based canonicalization and part-aware rewards, and then distill the knowledge to a vision-based student. We also find an expressive backbone is essential to overcome the large diversity of different objects. For cross-category generalization, we introduce domain adversarial learning for domain-invariant feature extraction. Extensive experiments in simulation show that our learned policy can outperform other methods by a large margin, especially on unseen object categories. We also demonstrate our method can successfully manipulate novel objects in the real world.
In this work, we tackle 6-DoF grasp detection for transparent and specular objects, which is an important yet challenging problem in vision-based robotic systems, due to the failure of depth cameras in sensing their geometry. We, for the first time, propose a multiview RGB-based 6-DoF grasp detection network, GraspNeRF, that leverages the generalizable neural radiance field (NeRF) to achieve material-agnostic object grasping in clutter. Compared to the existing NeRF-based 3-DoF grasp detection methods that rely on densely captured input images and time-consuming per-scene optimization, our system can perform zero-shot NeRF construction with sparse RGB inputs and reliably detect 6-DoF grasps, both in real-time. The proposed framework jointly learns generalizable NeRF and grasp detection in an end-to-end manner, optimizing the scene representation construction for the grasping. For training data, we generate a large-scale photorealistic domain-randomized synthetic dataset of grasping in cluttered tabletop scenes that enables direct transfer to the real world. Our extensive experiments in synthetic and real-world environments demonstrate that our method significantly outperforms all the baselines in all the experiments while remaining in real-time.
Generating dexterous grasping has been a long-standing and challenging robotic task. Despite recent progress, existing methods primarily suffer from two issues. First, most prior arts focus on a specific type of robot hand, lacking the generalizable capability of handling unseen ones. Second, prior arts oftentimes fail to rapidly generate diverse grasps with a high success rate. To jointly tackle these challenges with a unified solution, we propose GenDexGrasp, a novel hand-agnostic grasping algorithm for generalizable grasping. GenDexGrasp is trained on our proposed large-scale multi-hand grasping dataset MultiDex synthesized with force closure optimization. By leveraging the contact map as a hand-agnostic intermediate representation, GenDexGrasp efficiently generates diverse and plausible grasping poses with a high success rate and can transfer among diverse multi-fingered robotic hands. Compared with previous methods, GenDexGrasp achieves a three-way trade-off among success rate, inference speed, and diversity. Code is available at https://github.com/tengyu-liu/GenDexGrasp.
Learning to manipulate 3D objects in an interactive environment has been a challenging problem in Reinforcement Learning (RL). In particular, it is hard to train a policy that can generalize over objects with different semantic categories, diverse shape geometry and versatile functionality. Recently, the technique of visual affordance has shown great prospects in providing object-centric information priors with effective actionable semantics. As such, an effective policy can be trained to open a door by knowing how to exert force on the handle. However, to learn the affordance, it often requires human-defined action primitives, which limits the range of applicable tasks. In this study, we take advantage of visual affordance by using the contact information generated during the RL training process to predict contact maps of interest. Such contact prediction process then leads to an end-to-end affordance learning framework that can generalize over different types of manipulation tasks. Surprisingly, the effectiveness of such framework holds even under the multi-stage and the multi-agent scenarios. We tested our method on eight types of manipulation tasks. Results showed that our methods outperform baseline algorithms, including visual-based affordance methods and RL methods, by a large margin on the success rate. The demonstration can be found at https://sites.google.com/view/rlafford/.
Grasping moving objects, such as goods on a belt or living animals, is an important but challenging task in robotics. Conventional approaches rely on a set of manually defined object motion patterns for training, resulting in poor generalization to unseen object trajectories. In this work, we introduce an adversarial reinforcement learning framework for dynamic grasping, namely GraspARL. To be specific. we formulate the dynamic grasping problem as a 'move-and-grasp' game, where the robot is to pick up the object on the mover and the adversarial mover is to find a path to escape it. Hence, the two agents play a min-max game and are trained by reinforcement learning. In this way, the mover can auto-generate diverse moving trajectories while training. And the robot trained with the adversarial trajectories can generalize to various motion patterns. Empirical results on the simulator and real-world scenario demonstrate the effectiveness of each and good generalization of our method.