Recently, the advent of pre-trained large-scale language models (LLMs) like ChatGPT and GPT-4 have significantly advanced the machine's natural language understanding capabilities. This breakthrough has allowed us to seamlessly integrate these open-source LLMs into a unified robot simulator environment to help robots accurately understand and execute human natural language instructions. To this end, in this work, we introduce a realistic robotic manipulation simulator and build a Robotic Manipulation with Progressive Reasoning Tasks (RM-PRT) benchmark on this basis. Specifically, the RM-PRT benchmark builds a new high-fidelity digital twin scene based on Unreal Engine 5, which includes 782 categories, 2023 objects, and 15K natural language instructions generated by ChatGPT for a detailed evaluation of robot manipulation. We propose a general pipeline for the RM-PRT benchmark that takes as input multimodal prompts containing natural language instructions and automatically outputs actions containing the movement and position transitions. We set four natural language understanding tasks with progressive reasoning levels and evaluate the robot's ability to understand natural language instructions in two modes of adsorption and grasping. In addition, we also conduct a comprehensive analysis and comparison of the differences and advantages of 10 different LLMs in instruction understanding and generation quality. We hope the new simulator and benchmark will facilitate future research on language-guided robotic manipulation. Project website: https://necolizer.github.io/RM-PRT/ .
Given a natural language, a general robot has to comprehend the instruction and find the target object or location based on visual observations even in unexplored environments. Most agents rely on massive diverse training data to achieve better generalization, which requires expensive labor. These agents often focus on common objects and fewer tasks, thus are not intelligent enough to handle different types of instructions. To facilitate research in open-set vision-and-language navigation, we propose a benchmark named MO-VLN, aiming at testing the effectiveness and generalization of the agent in the multi-task setting. First, we develop a 3D simulator rendered by realistic scenarios using Unreal Engine 5, containing more realistic lights and details. The simulator contains three scenes, i.e., cafe, restaurant, and nursing house, of high value in the industry. Besides, our simulator involves multiple uncommon objects, such as takeaway cup and medical adhesive tape, which are more complicated compared with existing environments. Inspired by the recent success of large language models (e.g., ChatGPT, Vicuna), we construct diverse high-quality data of instruction type without human annotation. Our benchmark MO-VLN provides four tasks: 1) goal-conditioned navigation given a specific object category (e.g., "fork"); 2) goal-conditioned navigation given simple instructions (e.g., "Search for and move towards a tennis ball"); 3) step-by-step instruction following; 4) finding abstract object based on high-level instruction (e.g., "I am thirsty").
Recent advances in vision-language pre-training have enabled machines to perform better in multimodal object discrimination (e.g., image-text semantic alignment) and image synthesis (e.g., text-to-image generation). On the other hand, fine-tuning pre-trained models with discriminative or generative capabilities such as CLIP and Stable Diffusion on domain-specific datasets has shown to be effective in various tasks by adapting to specific domains. However, few studies have explored the possibility of learning both discriminative and generative capabilities and leveraging their synergistic effects to create a powerful and personalized multimodal model during fine-tuning. This paper presents UniDiff, a unified multi-modal model that integrates image-text contrastive learning (ITC), text-conditioned image synthesis learning (IS), and reciprocal semantic consistency modeling (RSC). UniDiff effectively learns aligned semantics and mitigates the issue of semantic collapse during fine-tuning on small datasets by leveraging RSC on visual features from CLIP and diffusion models, without altering the pre-trained model's basic architecture. UniDiff demonstrates versatility in both multi-modal understanding and generative tasks. Experimental results on three datasets (Fashion-man, Fashion-woman, and E-commercial Product) showcase substantial enhancements in vision-language retrieval and text-to-image generation, illustrating the advantages of combining discriminative and generative fine-tuning. The proposed UniDiff model establishes a robust pipeline for personalized modeling and serves as a benchmark for future comparisons in the field.
Recent advances in text-to-image diffusion models have achieved remarkable success in generating high-quality, realistic images from given text prompts. However, previous methods fail to perform accurate modality alignment between text concepts and generated images due to the lack of fine-level semantic guidance that successfully diagnoses the modality discrepancy. In this paper, we propose FineRewards to improve the alignment between text and images in text-to-image diffusion models by introducing two new fine-grained semantic rewards: the caption reward and the Semantic Segment Anything (SAM) reward. From the global semantic view, the caption reward generates a corresponding detailed caption that depicts all important contents in the synthetic image via a BLIP-2 model and then calculates the reward score by measuring the similarity between the generated caption and the given prompt. From the local semantic view, the SAM reward segments the generated images into local parts with category labels, and scores the segmented parts by measuring the likelihood of each category appearing in the prompted scene via a large language model, i.e., Vicuna-7B. Additionally, we adopt an assemble reward-ranked learning strategy to enable the integration of multiple reward functions to jointly guide the model training. Adapting results of text-to-image models on the MS-COCO benchmark show that the proposed semantic reward outperforms other baseline reward functions with a considerable margin on both visual quality and semantic similarity with the input prompt. Moreover, by adopting the assemble reward-ranked learning strategy, we further demonstrate that model performance is further improved when adapting under the unifying of the proposed semantic reward with the current image rewards.
Large vision and language models, such as Contrastive Language-Image Pre-training (CLIP), are rapidly becoming the industry norm for matching images and texts. In order to improve its zero-shot recognition performance, current research either adds additional web-crawled image-text pairs or designs new training losses. However, the additional costs associated with training from scratch and data collection substantially hinder their deployment. In this paper, we present HELIP, a low-cost strategy for boosting the performance of well-trained CLIP models by finetuning them with hard samples over original training data. Mixing hard examples into each batch, the well-trained CLIP model is then fine-tuned using the conventional contrastive alignment objective and a margin loss to distinguish between normal and hard negative data. HELIP is deployed in a plug-and-play fashion to existing models. On a comprehensive zero-shot and retrieval benchmark, without training the model from scratch or utilizing additional data, HELIP consistently boosts existing models to achieve leading performance. In particular, HELIP boosts ImageNet zero-shot accuracy of SLIP by 3.05 and 4.47 when pretrained on CC3M and CC12M respectively. In addition, a systematic evaluation of zero-shot and linear probing experiments across fine-grained classification datasets demonstrates a consistent performance improvement and validates the efficacy of HELIP . When pretraining on CC3M, HELIP boosts zero-shot performance of CLIP and SLIP by 8.4\% and 18.6\% on average respectively, and linear probe performance by 9.5\% and 3.0\% on average respectively.
Medical artificial general intelligence (MAGI) enables one foundation model to solve different medical tasks, which is very practical in the medical domain. It can significantly reduce the requirement of large amounts of task-specific data by sufficiently sharing medical knowledge among different tasks. However, due to the challenges of designing strongly generalizable models with limited and complex medical data, most existing approaches tend to develop task-specific models. To take a step towards MAGI, we propose a new paradigm called Medical-knOwledge-enhanced mulTimOdal pretRaining (MOTOR). In MOTOR, we combine two kinds of basic medical knowledge, i.e., general and specific knowledge, in a complementary manner to boost the general pretraining process. As a result, the foundation model with comprehensive basic knowledge can learn compact representations from pretraining radiographic data for better cross-modal alignment. MOTOR unifies the understanding and generation, which are two kinds of core intelligence of an AI system, into a single medical foundation model, to flexibly handle more diverse medical tasks. To enable a comprehensive evaluation and facilitate further research, we construct a medical multimodal benchmark including a wide range of downstream tasks, such as chest x-ray report generation and medical visual question answering. Extensive experiments on our benchmark show that MOTOR obtains promising results through simple task-oriented adaptation. The visualization shows that the injected knowledge successfully highlights key information in the medical data, demonstrating the excellent interpretability of MOTOR. Our MOTOR successfully mimics the human practice of fulfilling a "medical student" to accelerate the process of becoming a "specialist". We believe that our work makes a significant stride in realizing MAGI.
We introduce a new task, novel view synthesis for LiDAR sensors. While traditional model-based LiDAR simulators with style-transfer neural networks can be applied to render novel views, they fall short in producing accurate and realistic LiDAR patterns, because the renderers they rely on exploit game engines, which are not differentiable. We address this by formulating, to the best of our knowledge, the first differentiable LiDAR renderer, and propose an end-to-end framework, LiDAR-NeRF, leveraging a neural radiance field (NeRF) to enable jointly learning the geometry and the attributes of 3D points. To evaluate the effectiveness of our approach, we establish an object-centric multi-view LiDAR dataset, dubbed NeRF-MVL. It contains observations of objects from 9 categories seen from 360-degree viewpoints captured with multiple LiDAR sensors. Our extensive experiments on the scene-level KITTI-360 dataset, and on our object-level NeRF-MVL show that our LiDAR- NeRF surpasses the model-based algorithms significantly.
This paper presents DetCLIPv2, an efficient and scalable training framework that incorporates large-scale image-text pairs to achieve open-vocabulary object detection (OVD). Unlike previous OVD frameworks that typically rely on a pre-trained vision-language model (e.g., CLIP) or exploit image-text pairs via a pseudo labeling process, DetCLIPv2 directly learns the fine-grained word-region alignment from massive image-text pairs in an end-to-end manner. To accomplish this, we employ a maximum word-region similarity between region proposals and textual words to guide the contrastive objective. To enable the model to gain localization capability while learning broad concepts, DetCLIPv2 is trained with a hybrid supervision from detection, grounding and image-text pair data under a unified data formulation. By jointly training with an alternating scheme and adopting low-resolution input for image-text pairs, DetCLIPv2 exploits image-text pair data efficiently and effectively: DetCLIPv2 utilizes 13X more image-text pairs than DetCLIP with a similar training time and improves performance. With 13M image-text pairs for pre-training, DetCLIPv2 demonstrates superior open-vocabulary detection performance, e.g., DetCLIPv2 with Swin-T backbone achieves 40.4% zero-shot AP on the LVIS benchmark, which outperforms previous works GLIP/GLIPv2/DetCLIP by 14.4/11.4/4.5% AP, respectively, and even beats its fully-supervised counterpart by a large margin.
Contrastive Language-Image Pre-training, benefiting from large-scale unlabeled text-image pairs, has demonstrated great performance in open-world vision understanding tasks. However, due to the limited Text-3D data pairs, adapting the success of 2D Vision-Language Models (VLM) to the 3D space remains an open problem. Existing works that leverage VLM for 3D understanding generally resort to constructing intermediate 2D representations for the 3D data, but at the cost of losing 3D geometry information. To take a step toward open-world 3D vision understanding, we propose Contrastive Language-Image-Point Cloud Pretraining (CLIP$^2$) to directly learn the transferable 3D point cloud representation in realistic scenarios with a novel proxy alignment mechanism. Specifically, we exploit naturally-existed correspondences in 2D and 3D scenarios, and build well-aligned and instance-based text-image-point proxies from those complex scenarios. On top of that, we propose a cross-modal contrastive objective to learn semantic and instance-level aligned point cloud representation. Experimental results on both indoor and outdoor scenarios show that our learned 3D representation has great transfer ability in downstream tasks, including zero-shot and few-shot 3D recognition, which boosts the state-of-the-art methods by large margins. Furthermore, we provide analyses of the capability of different representations in real scenarios and present the optional ensemble scheme.
Image-based Virtual Try-ON aims to transfer an in-shop garment onto a specific person. Existing methods employ a global warping module to model the anisotropic deformation for different garment parts, which fails to preserve the semantic information of different parts when receiving challenging inputs (e.g, intricate human poses, difficult garments). Moreover, most of them directly warp the input garment to align with the boundary of the preserved region, which usually requires texture squeezing to meet the boundary shape constraint and thus leads to texture distortion. The above inferior performance hinders existing methods from real-world applications. To address these problems and take a step towards real-world virtual try-on, we propose a General-Purpose Virtual Try-ON framework, named GP-VTON, by developing an innovative Local-Flow Global-Parsing (LFGP) warping module and a Dynamic Gradient Truncation (DGT) training strategy. Specifically, compared with the previous global warping mechanism, LFGP employs local flows to warp garments parts individually, and assembles the local warped results via the global garment parsing, resulting in reasonable warped parts and a semantic-correct intact garment even with challenging inputs.On the other hand, our DGT training strategy dynamically truncates the gradient in the overlap area and the warped garment is no more required to meet the boundary constraint, which effectively avoids the texture squeezing problem. Furthermore, our GP-VTON can be easily extended to multi-category scenario and jointly trained by using data from different garment categories. Extensive experiments on two high-resolution benchmarks demonstrate our superiority over the existing state-of-the-art methods.