Particle-based variational inference methods (ParVIs) such as Stein variational gradient descent (SVGD) update the particles based on the kernelized Wasserstein gradient flow for the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence. However, the design of kernels is often non-trivial and can be restrictive for the flexibility of the method. Recent works show that functional gradient flow approximations with quadratic form regularization terms can improve performance. In this paper, we propose a ParVI framework, called generalized Wasserstein gradient descent (GWG), based on a generalized Wasserstein gradient flow of the KL divergence, which can be viewed as a functional gradient method with a broader class of regularizers induced by convex functions. We show that GWG exhibits strong convergence guarantees. We also provide an adaptive version that automatically chooses Wasserstein metric to accelerate convergence. In experiments, we demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed framework on both simulated and real data problems.
Cross-modal garment synthesis and manipulation will significantly benefit the way fashion designers generate garments and modify their designs via flexible linguistic interfaces.Current approaches follow the general text-to-image paradigm and mine cross-modal relations via simple cross-attention modules, neglecting the structural correspondence between visual and textual representations in the fashion design domain. In this work, we instead introduce DiffCloth, a diffusion-based pipeline for cross-modal garment synthesis and manipulation, which empowers diffusion models with flexible compositionality in the fashion domain by structurally aligning the cross-modal semantics. Specifically, we formulate the part-level cross-modal alignment as a bipartite matching problem between the linguistic Attribute-Phrases (AP) and the visual garment parts which are obtained via constituency parsing and semantic segmentation, respectively. To mitigate the issue of attribute confusion, we further propose a semantic-bundled cross-attention to preserve the spatial structure similarities between the attention maps of attribute adjectives and part nouns in each AP. Moreover, DiffCloth allows for manipulation of the generated results by simply replacing APs in the text prompts. The manipulation-irrelevant regions are recognized by blended masks obtained from the bundled attention maps of the APs and kept unchanged. Extensive experiments on the CM-Fashion benchmark demonstrate that DiffCloth both yields state-of-the-art garment synthesis results by leveraging the inherent structural information and supports flexible manipulation with region consistency.
Autoregressive language models are trained by minimizing the cross-entropy of the model distribution Q relative to the data distribution P -- that is, minimizing the forward cross-entropy, which is equivalent to maximum likelihood estimation (MLE). We have observed that models trained in this way may "over-generalize", in the sense that they produce non-human-like text. Moreover, we believe that reverse cross-entropy, i.e., the cross-entropy of P relative to Q, is a better reflection of how a human would evaluate text generated by a model. Hence, we propose learning with MixCE, an objective that mixes the forward and reverse cross-entropies. We evaluate models trained with this objective on synthetic data settings (where P is known) and real data, and show that the resulting models yield better generated text without complex decoding strategies. Our code and models are publicly available at https://github.com/bloomberg/mixce-acl2023
Language models (LMs) can generate hallucinations and incoherent outputs, which highlights their weak context dependency. Cache-LMs, which augment LMs with a memory of recent history, can increase context dependency and have shown remarkable performance in diverse language generation tasks. However, we find that even with training, the performance gain stemming from the cache component of current cache-LMs is suboptimal due to the misalignment between the current hidden states and those stored in the memory. In this work, we present HistAlign, a new training approach to ensure good cache alignment such that the model receives useful signals from the history. We first prove our concept on a simple and synthetic task where the memory is essential for correct predictions, and we show that the cache component of HistAlign is better aligned and improves overall performance. Next, we evaluate HistAlign on diverse downstream language generation tasks, including prompt continuation, abstractive summarization, and data-to-text. We demonstrate that HistAlign improves text coherence and faithfulness in open-ended and conditional generation settings respectively. HistAlign is also generalizable across different model families, showcasing its strength in improving context dependency of LMs in diverse scenarios. Our code is publicly available at https://github.com/meetdavidwan/histalign
While large language models (LLMs) have proven to be effective on a large variety of tasks, they are also known to hallucinate information. To measure whether an LLM prefers factually consistent continuations of its input, we propose a new benchmark called FIB(Factual Inconsistency Benchmark) that focuses on the task of summarization. Specifically, our benchmark involves comparing the scores an LLM assigns to a factually consistent versus a factually inconsistent summary for an input news article. For factually consistent summaries, we use human-written reference summaries that we manually verify as factually consistent. To generate summaries that are factually inconsistent, we generate summaries from a suite of summarization models that we have manually annotated as factually inconsistent. A model's factual consistency is then measured according to its accuracy, i.e.\ the proportion of documents where it assigns a higher score to the factually consistent summary. To validate the usefulness of FIB, we evaluate 23 large language models ranging from 1B to 176B parameters from six different model families including BLOOM and OPT. We find that existing LLMs generally assign a higher score to factually consistent summaries than to factually inconsistent summaries. However, if the factually inconsistent summaries occur verbatim in the document, then LLMs assign a higher score to these factually inconsistent summaries than factually consistent summaries. We validate design choices in our benchmark including the scoring method and source of distractor summaries. Our code and benchmark data can be found at https://github.com/r-three/fib.
Current abstractive summarization models either suffer from a lack of clear interpretability or provide incomplete rationales by only highlighting parts of the source document. To this end, we propose the Summarization Program (SP), an interpretable modular framework consisting of an (ordered) list of binary trees, each encoding the step-by-step generative process of an abstractive summary sentence from the source document. A Summarization Program contains one root node per summary sentence, and a distinct tree connects each summary sentence (root node) to the document sentences (leaf nodes) from which it is derived, with the connecting nodes containing intermediate generated sentences. Edges represent different modular operations involved in summarization such as sentence fusion, compression, and paraphrasing. We first propose an efficient best-first search method over neural modules, SP-Search that identifies SPs for human summaries by directly optimizing for ROUGE scores. Next, using these programs as automatic supervision, we propose seq2seq models that generate Summarization Programs, which are then executed to obtain final summaries. We demonstrate that SP-Search effectively represents the generative process behind human summaries using modules that are typically faithful to their intended behavior. We also conduct a simulation study to show that Summarization Programs improve the interpretability of summarization models by allowing humans to better simulate model reasoning. Summarization Programs constitute a promising step toward interpretable and modular abstractive summarization, a complex task previously addressed primarily through blackbox end-to-end neural systems. Our code is available at https://github.com/swarnaHub/SummarizationPrograms
The problems of unfaithful summaries have been widely discussed under the context of abstractive summarization. Though extractive summarization is less prone to the common unfaithfulness issues of abstractive summaries, does that mean extractive is equal to faithful? Turns out that the answer is no. In this work, we define a typology with five types of broad unfaithfulness problems (including and beyond not-entailment) that can appear in extractive summaries, including incorrect coreference, incomplete coreference, incorrect discourse, incomplete discourse, as well as other misleading information. We ask humans to label these problems out of 1500 English summaries produced by 15 diverse extractive systems. We find that 33% of the summaries have at least one of the five issues. To automatically detect these problems, we find that 5 existing faithfulness evaluation metrics for summarization have poor correlations with human judgment. To remedy this, we propose a new metric, ExtEval, that is designed for detecting unfaithful extractive summaries and is shown to have the best performance. We hope our work can increase the awareness of unfaithfulness problems in extractive summarization and help future work to evaluate and resolve these issues. Our data and code are publicly available at https://github.com/ZhangShiyue/extractive_is_not_faithful
Student Evaluations of Teaching (SETs) are widely used in colleges and universities. Typically SET results are summarized for instructors in a static PDF report. The report often includes summary statistics for quantitative ratings and an unsorted list of open-ended student comments. The lack of organization and summarization of the raw comments hinders those interpreting the reports from fully utilizing informative feedback, making accurate inferences, and designing appropriate instructional improvements. In this work, we introduce a novel system, SETSum, that leverages sentiment analysis, aspect extraction, summarization, and visualization techniques to provide organized illustrations of SET findings to instructors and other reviewers. Ten university professors from diverse departments serve as evaluators of the system and all agree that SETSum helps them interpret SET results more efficiently; and 6 out of 10 instructors prefer our system over the standard static PDF report (while the remaining 4 would like to have both). This demonstrates that our work holds the potential to reform the SET reporting conventions in the future. Our code is available at https://github.com/evahuyn/SETSum
Previous Part-Of-Speech (POS) induction models usually assume certain independence assumptions (e.g., Markov, unidirectional, local dependency) that do not hold in real languages. For example, the subject-verb agreement can be both long-term and bidirectional. To facilitate flexible dependency modeling, we propose a Masked Part-of-Speech Model (MPoSM), inspired by the recent success of Masked Language Models (MLM). MPoSM can model arbitrary tag dependency and perform POS induction through the objective of masked POS reconstruction. We achieve competitive results on both the English Penn WSJ dataset as well as the universal treebank containing 10 diverse languages. Though modeling the long-term dependency should ideally help this task, our ablation study shows mixed trends in different languages. To better understand this phenomenon, we design a novel synthetic experiment that can specifically diagnose the model's ability to learn tag agreement. Surprisingly, we find that even strong baselines fail to solve this problem consistently in a very simplified setting: the agreement between adjacent words. Nonetheless, MPoSM achieves overall better performance. Lastly, we conduct a detailed error analysis to shed light on other remaining challenges. Our code is available at https://github.com/owenzx/MPoSM
A multilingual tokenizer is a fundamental component of multilingual neural machine translation. It is trained from a multilingual corpus. Since a skewed data distribution is considered to be harmful, a sampling strategy is usually used to balance languages in the corpus. However, few works have systematically answered how language imbalance in tokenizer training affects downstream performance. In this work, we analyze how translation performance changes as the data ratios among languages vary in the tokenizer training corpus. We find that while relatively better performance is often observed when languages are more equally sampled, the downstream performance is more robust to language imbalance than we usually expected. Two features, UNK rate and closeness to the character level, can warn of poor downstream performance before performing the task. We also distinguish language sampling for tokenizer training from sampling for model training and show that the model is more sensitive to the latter.