Recently, the advent of pre-trained large-scale language models (LLMs) like ChatGPT and GPT-4 have significantly advanced the machine's natural language understanding capabilities. This breakthrough has allowed us to seamlessly integrate these open-source LLMs into a unified robot simulator environment to help robots accurately understand and execute human natural language instructions. To this end, in this work, we introduce a realistic robotic manipulation simulator and build a Robotic Manipulation with Progressive Reasoning Tasks (RM-PRT) benchmark on this basis. Specifically, the RM-PRT benchmark builds a new high-fidelity digital twin scene based on Unreal Engine 5, which includes 782 categories, 2023 objects, and 15K natural language instructions generated by ChatGPT for a detailed evaluation of robot manipulation. We propose a general pipeline for the RM-PRT benchmark that takes as input multimodal prompts containing natural language instructions and automatically outputs actions containing the movement and position transitions. We set four natural language understanding tasks with progressive reasoning levels and evaluate the robot's ability to understand natural language instructions in two modes of adsorption and grasping. In addition, we also conduct a comprehensive analysis and comparison of the differences and advantages of 10 different LLMs in instruction understanding and generation quality. We hope the new simulator and benchmark will facilitate future research on language-guided robotic manipulation. Project website: https://necolizer.github.io/RM-PRT/ .
One tough problem of image inpainting is to restore complex structures in the corrupted regions. It motivates interactive image inpainting which leverages additional hints, e.g., sketches, to assist the inpainting process. Sketch is simple and intuitive to end users, but meanwhile has free forms with much randomness. Such randomness may confuse the inpainting models, and incur severe artifacts in completed images. To address this problem, we propose a two-stage image inpainting method termed SketchRefiner. In the first stage, we propose using a cross-correlation loss function to robustly calibrate and refine the user-provided sketches in a coarse-to-fine fashion. In the second stage, we learn to extract informative features from the abstracted sketches in the feature space and modulate the inpainting process. We also propose an algorithm to simulate real sketches automatically and build a test protocol with different applications. Experimental results on public datasets demonstrate that SketchRefiner effectively utilizes sketch information and eliminates the artifacts due to the free-form sketches. Our method consistently outperforms the state-of-the-art ones both qualitatively and quantitatively, meanwhile revealing great potential in real-world applications. Our code and dataset are available.
Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a widely used surgical procedure in orthopedics. For THA, it is of clinical significance to analyze the bone structure from the CT images, especially to observe the structure of the acetabulum and femoral head, before the surgical procedure. For such bone structure analyses, deep learning technologies are promising but require high-quality labeled data for the learning, while the data labeling is costly. We address this issue and propose an efficient data annotation pipeline for producing a deep learning-oriented dataset. Our pipeline consists of non-learning-based bone extraction (BE) and acetabulum and femoral head segmentation (AFS) and active-learning-based annotation refinement (AAR). For BE we use the classic graph-cut algorithm. For AFS we propose an improved algorithm, including femoral head boundary localization using first-order and second-order gradient regularization, line-based non-maximum suppression, and anatomy prior-based femoral head extraction. For AAR, we refine the algorithm-produced pseudo labels with the help of trained deep models: we measure the uncertainty based on the disagreement between the original pseudo labels and the deep model predictions, and then find out the samples with the largest uncertainty to ask for manual labeling. Using the proposed pipeline, we construct a large-scale bone structure analyses dataset from more than 300 clinical and diverse CT scans. We perform careful manual labeling for the test set of our data. We then benchmark multiple state-of-the art deep learning-based methods of medical image segmentation using the training and test sets of our data. The extensive experimental results validate the efficacy of the proposed data annotation pipeline. The dataset, related codes and models will be publicly available at https://github.com/hitachinsk/THA.
We propose SAMed, a general solution for medical image segmentation. Different from the previous methods, SAMed is built upon the large-scale image segmentation model, Segment Anything Model (SAM), to explore the new research paradigm of customizing large-scale models for medical image segmentation. SAMed applies the low-rank-based (LoRA) finetuning strategy to the SAM image encoder and finetunes it together with the prompt encoder and the mask decoder on labeled medical image segmentation datasets. We also observe the warmup finetuning strategy and the AdamW optimizer lead SAMed to successful convergence and lower loss. Different from SAM, SAMed could perform semantic segmentation on medical images. Our trained SAMed model achieves 81.88 DSC and 20.64 HD on the Synapse multi-organ segmentation dataset, which is on par with the state-of-the-art methods. We conduct extensive experiments to validate the effectiveness of our design. Since SAMed only updates a small fraction of the SAM parameters, its deployment cost and storage cost are quite marginal in practical usage. The code of SAMed is available at https://github.com/hitachinsk/SAMed.
Transformers have been widely used for video processing owing to the multi-head self attention (MHSA) mechanism. However, the MHSA mechanism encounters an intrinsic difficulty for video inpainting, since the features associated with the corrupted regions are degraded and incur inaccurate self attention. This problem, termed query degradation, may be mitigated by first completing optical flows and then using the flows to guide the self attention, which was verified in our previous work - flow-guided transformer (FGT). We further exploit the flow guidance and propose FGT++ to pursue more effective and efficient video inpainting. First, we design a lightweight flow completion network by using local aggregation and edge loss. Second, to address the query degradation, we propose a flow guidance feature integration module, which uses the motion discrepancy to enhance the features, together with a flow-guided feature propagation module that warps the features according to the flows. Third, we decouple the transformer along the temporal and spatial dimensions, where flows are used to select the tokens through a temporally deformable MHSA mechanism, and global tokens are combined with the inner-window local tokens through a dual perspective MHSA mechanism. FGT++ is experimentally evaluated to be outperforming the existing video inpainting networks qualitatively and quantitatively.
* This manuscript is a journal extension of our ECCV 2022 paper
We propose a flow-guided transformer, which innovatively leverage the motion discrepancy exposed by optical flows to instruct the attention retrieval in transformer for high fidelity video inpainting. More specially, we design a novel flow completion network to complete the corrupted flows by exploiting the relevant flow features in a local temporal window. With the completed flows, we propagate the content across video frames, and adopt the flow-guided transformer to synthesize the rest corrupted regions. We decouple transformers along temporal and spatial dimension, so that we can easily integrate the locally relevant completed flows to instruct spatial attention only. Furthermore, we design a flow-reweight module to precisely control the impact of completed flows on each spatial transformer. For the sake of efficiency, we introduce window partition strategy to both spatial and temporal transformers. Especially in spatial transformer, we design a dual perspective spatial MHSA, which integrates the global tokens to the window-based attention. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method qualitatively and quantitatively. Codes are available at https://github.com/hitachinsk/FGT.