Intelligent structural design using AI can effectively reduce time overhead and increase efficiency. It has potential to become the new design paradigm in the future to assist and even replace engineers, and so it has become a research hotspot in the academic community. However, current methods have some limitations to be addressed, whether in terms of application scope, visual quality of generated results, or evaluation metrics of results. This study proposes a comprehensive solution. Firstly, we introduce building information modeling (BIM) into intelligent structural design and establishes a structural design pipeline integrating BIM and generative AI, which is a powerful supplement to the previous frameworks that only considered CAD drawings. In order to improve the perceptual quality and details of generations, this study makes 3 contributions. Firstly, in terms of generation framework, inspired by the process of human drawing, a novel 2-stage generation framework is proposed to replace the traditional end-to-end framework to reduce the generation difficulty for AI models. Secondly, in terms of generative AI tools adopted, diffusion models (DMs) are introduced to replace widely used generative adversarial network (GAN)-based models, and a novel physics-based conditional diffusion model (PCDM) is proposed to consider different design prerequisites. Thirdly, in terms of neural networks, an attention block (AB) consisting of a self-attention block (SAB) and a parallel cross-attention block (PCAB) is designed to facilitate cross-domain data fusion. The quantitative and qualitative results demonstrate the powerful generation and representation capabilities of PCDM. Necessary ablation studies are conducted to examine the validity of the methods. This study also shows that DMs have the potential to replace GANs and become the new benchmark for generative problems in civil engineering.
In this paper, a 24-dimensional geometrically-shaped constellation design based on Leech lattice is presented for indoor visible light communications (VLCs) with a peak-and an average-intensity input constraints. Firstly, by leveraging tools from large deviation theory, we characterize second-order asymptotics of the optimal constellation shaping region under aforementioned intensity constraints, which further refine our previous results in [Chen. et. al, 2020]. Within the optimal geometrical shaping region, we develop an energy-efficient 24-dimensional constellation design, where a significant coding gain brought by the Leech lattice and the nearly-maximum shaping gain are incorporated by using a strategy called coarsely shaping and finely coding. Fast algorithms for constellation mapping and demodulation are presented as well. Numerical results verifies the superiority of our results as compared with existing methods.
Few-shot class-incremental learning (FSCIL) aims to build machine learning model that can continually learn new concepts from a few data samples, without forgetting knowledge of old classes. The challenges of FSCIL lies in the limited data of new classes, which not only lead to significant overfitting issues but also exacerbates the notorious catastrophic forgetting problems. As proved in early studies, building sample relationships is beneficial for learning from few-shot samples. In this paper, we promote the idea to the incremental scenario, and propose a Sample-to-Class (S2C) graph learning method for FSCIL. Specifically, we propose a Sample-level Graph Network (SGN) that focuses on analyzing sample relationships within a single session. This network helps aggregate similar samples, ultimately leading to the extraction of more refined class-level features. Then, we present a Class-level Graph Network (CGN) that establishes connections across class-level features of both new and old classes. This network plays a crucial role in linking the knowledge between different sessions and helps improve overall learning in the FSCIL scenario. Moreover, we design a multi-stage strategy for training S2C model, which mitigates the training challenges posed by limited data in the incremental process. The multi-stage training strategy is designed to build S2C graph from base to few-shot stages, and improve the capacity via an extra pseudo-incremental stage. Experiments on three popular benchmark datasets show that our method clearly outperforms the baselines and sets new state-of-the-art results in FSCIL.
Driving style is usually used to characterize driving behavior for a driver or a group of drivers. However, it remains unclear how one individual's driving style shares certain common grounds with other drivers. Our insight is that driving behavior is a sequence of responses to the weighted mixture of latent driving styles that are shareable within and between individuals. To this end, this paper develops a hierarchical latent model to learn the relationship between driving behavior and driving styles. We first propose a fragment-based approach to represent complex sequential driving behavior, allowing for sufficiently representing driving behavior in a low-dimension feature space. Then, we provide an analytical formulation for the interaction of driving behavior and shareable driving style with a hierarchical latent model by introducing the mechanism of Dirichlet allocation. Our developed model is finally validated and verified with 100 drivers in naturalistic driving settings with urban and highways. Experimental results reveal that individuals share driving styles within and between them. We also analyzed the influence of personalities (e.g., age, gender, and driving experience) on driving styles and found that a naturally aggressive driver would not always keep driving aggressively (i.e., could behave calmly sometimes) but with a higher proportion of aggressiveness than other types of drivers.
Automatic segmentation of breast tumors from the ultrasound images is essential for the subsequent clinical diagnosis and treatment plan. Although the existing deep learning-based methods have achieved significant progress in automatic segmentation of breast tumor, their performance on tumors with similar intensity to the normal tissues is still not pleasant, especially for the tumor boundaries. To address this issue, we propose a PBNet composed by a multilevel global perception module (MGPM) and a boundary guided module (BGM) to segment breast tumors from ultrasound images. Specifically, in MGPM, the long-range spatial dependence between the voxels in a single level feature maps are modeled, and then the multilevel semantic information is fused to promote the recognition ability of the model for non-enhanced tumors. In BGM, the tumor boundaries are extracted from the high-level semantic maps using the dilation and erosion effects of max pooling, such boundaries are then used to guide the fusion of low and high-level features. Moreover, to improve the segmentation performance for tumor boundaries, a multi-level boundary-enhanced segmentation (BS) loss is proposed. The extensive comparison experiments on both publicly available dataset and in-house dataset demonstrate that the proposed PBNet outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in terms of both qualitative visualization results and quantitative evaluation metrics, with the Dice score, Jaccard coefficient, Specificity and HD95 improved by 0.70%, 1.1%, 0.1% and 2.5% respectively. In addition, the ablation experiments validate that the proposed MGPM is indeed beneficial for distinguishing the non-enhanced tumors and the BGM as well as the BS loss are also helpful for refining the segmentation contours of the tumor.
Recent text-to-3D generation methods achieve impressive 3D content creation capacity thanks to the advances in image diffusion models and optimizing strategies. However, current methods struggle to generate correct 3D content for a complex prompt in semantics, i.e., a prompt describing multiple interacted objects binding with different attributes. In this work, we propose a general framework named Progressive3D, which decomposes the entire generation into a series of locally progressive editing steps to create precise 3D content for complex prompts, and we constrain the content change to only occur in regions determined by user-defined region prompts in each editing step. Furthermore, we propose an overlapped semantic component suppression technique to encourage the optimization process to focus more on the semantic differences between prompts. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed Progressive3D framework generates precise 3D content for prompts with complex semantics and is general for various text-to-3D methods driven by different 3D representations.
To analyze multivariate time series, most previous methods assume regular subsampling of time series, where the interval between adjacent measurements and the number of samples remain unchanged. Practically, data collection systems could produce irregularly sampled time series due to sensor failures and interventions. However, existing methods designed for regularly sampled multivariate time series cannot directly handle irregularity owing to misalignment along both temporal and variate dimensions. To fill this gap, we propose Compatible Transformer (CoFormer), a transformer-based encoder to achieve comprehensive temporal-interaction feature learning for each individual sample in irregular multivariate time series. In CoFormer, we view each sample as a unique variate-time point and leverage intra-variate/inter-variate attentions to learn sample-wise temporal/interaction features based on intra-variate/inter-variate neighbors. With CoFormer as the core, we can analyze irregularly sampled multivariate time series for many downstream tasks, including classification and prediction. We conduct extensive experiments on 3 real-world datasets and validate that the proposed CoFormer significantly and consistently outperforms existing methods.
Large language models (LLMs) exhibited powerful capability in various natural language processing tasks. This work focuses on exploring LLM performance on zero-shot information extraction, with a focus on the ChatGPT and named entity recognition (NER) task. Inspired by the remarkable reasoning capability of LLM on symbolic and arithmetic reasoning, we adapt the prevalent reasoning methods to NER and propose reasoning strategies tailored for NER. First, we explore a decomposed question-answering paradigm by breaking down the NER task into simpler subproblems by labels. Second, we propose syntactic augmentation to stimulate the model's intermediate thinking in two ways: syntactic prompting, which encourages the model to analyze the syntactic structure itself, and tool augmentation, which provides the model with the syntactic information generated by a parsing tool. Besides, we adapt self-consistency to NER by proposing a two-stage majority voting strategy, which first votes for the most consistent mentions, then the most consistent types. The proposed methods achieve remarkable improvements for zero-shot NER across seven benchmarks, including Chinese and English datasets, and on both domain-specific and general-domain scenarios. In addition, we present a comprehensive analysis of the error types with suggestions for optimization directions. We also verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods on the few-shot setting and other LLMs.
Inspired by certain optimization solvers, the deep unfolding network (DUN) has attracted much attention in recent years for image compressed sensing (CS). However, there still exist the following two issues: 1) In existing DUNs, most hyperparameters are usually content independent, which greatly limits their adaptability for different input contents. 2) In each iteration, a plain convolutional neural network is usually adopted, which weakens the perception of wider context prior and therefore depresses the expressive ability. In this paper, inspired by the traditional Proximal Gradient Descent (PGD) algorithm, a novel DUN for image compressed sensing (dubbed DUN-CSNet) is proposed to solve the above two issues. Specifically, for the first issue, a novel content adaptive gradient descent network is proposed, in which a well-designed step size generation sub-network is developed to dynamically allocate the corresponding step sizes for different textures of input image by generating a content-aware step size map, realizing a content-adaptive gradient updating. For the second issue, considering the fact that many similar patches exist in an image but have undergone a deformation, a novel deformation-invariant non-local proximal mapping network is developed, which can adaptively build the long-range dependencies between the nonlocal patches by deformation-invariant non-local modeling, leading to a wider perception on context priors. Extensive experiments manifest that the proposed DUN-CSNet outperforms existing state-of-the-art CS methods by large margins.