Recently, Vision Transformers (ViTs) have attracted a lot of attention in the field of computer vision. Generally, the powerful representative capacity of ViTs mainly benefits from the self-attention mechanism, which has a high computation complexity. To accelerate ViTs, we propose an integrated compression pipeline based on observed heterogeneous attention patterns across layers. On one hand, different images share more similar attention patterns in early layers than later layers, indicating that the dynamic query-by-key self-attention matrix may be replaced with a static self-attention matrix in early layers. Then, we propose a dynamic-guided static self-attention (DGSSA) method where the matrix inherits self-attention information from the replaced dynamic self-attention to effectively improve the feature representation ability of ViTs. On the other hand, the attention maps have more low-rank patterns, which reflect token redundancy, in later layers than early layers. In a view of linear dimension reduction, we further propose a method of global aggregation pyramid (GLAD) to reduce the number of tokens in later layers of ViTs, such as Deit. Experimentally, the integrated compression pipeline of DGSSA and GLAD can accelerate up to 121% run-time throughput compared with DeiT, which surpasses all SOTA approaches.
With the continuous improvement of computing power and deep learning algorithms in recent years, the foundation model has grown in popularity. Because of its powerful capabilities and excellent performance, this technology is being adopted and applied by an increasing number of industries. In the intelligent transportation industry, artificial intelligence faces the following typical challenges: few shots, poor generalization, and a lack of multi-modal techniques. Foundation model technology can significantly alleviate the aforementioned issues. To address these, we designed the 1st Foundation Model Challenge, with the goal of increasing the popularity of foundation model technology in traffic scenarios and promoting the rapid development of the intelligent transportation industry. The challenge is divided into two tracks: all-in-one and cross-modal image retrieval. Furthermore, we provide a new baseline and benchmark for the two tracks, called Open-TransMind. According to our knowledge, Open-TransMind is the first open-source transportation foundation model with multi-task and multi-modal capabilities. Simultaneously, Open-TransMind can achieve state-of-the-art performance on detection, classification, and segmentation datasets of traffic scenarios. Our source code is available at https://github.com/Traffic-X/Open-TransMind.
The "pre-training $\rightarrow$ downstream adaptation" presents both new opportunities and challenges for Continual Learning (CL). Although the recent state-of-the-art in CL is achieved through Parameter-Efficient-Tuning (PET) adaptation paradigm, only prompt has been explored, limiting its application to Transformers only. In this paper, we position prompting as one instantiation of PET, and propose a unified CL framework with general PET, dubbed as Learning-Accumulation-Ensemble (LAE). PET, e.g., using Adapter, LoRA, or Prefix, can adapt a pre-trained model to downstream tasks with fewer parameters and resources. Given a PET method, our LAE framework incorporates it for CL with three novel designs. 1) Learning: the pre-trained model adapts to the new task by tuning an online PET module, along with our adaptation speed calibration to align different PET modules, 2) Accumulation: the task-specific knowledge learned by the online PET module is accumulated into an offline PET module through momentum update, 3) Ensemble: During inference, we respectively construct two experts with online/offline PET modules (which are favored by the novel/historical tasks) for prediction ensemble. We show that LAE is compatible with a battery of PET methods and gains strong CL capability. For example, LAE with Adaptor PET surpasses the prior state-of-the-art by 1.3% and 3.6% in last-incremental accuracy on CIFAR100 and ImageNet-R datasets, respectively.
This paper proposes a novel Unified Feature Optimization (UFO) paradigm for training and deploying deep models under real-world and large-scale scenarios, which requires a collection of multiple AI functions. UFO aims to benefit each single task with a large-scale pretraining on all tasks. Compared with the well known foundation model, UFO has two different points of emphasis, i.e., relatively smaller model size and NO adaptation cost: 1) UFO squeezes a wide range of tasks into a moderate-sized unified model in a multi-task learning manner and further trims the model size when transferred to down-stream tasks. 2) UFO does not emphasize transfer to novel tasks. Instead, it aims to make the trimmed model dedicated for one or more already-seen task. With these two characteristics, UFO provides great convenience for flexible deployment, while maintaining the benefits of large-scale pretraining. A key merit of UFO is that the trimming process not only reduces the model size and inference consumption, but also even improves the accuracy on certain tasks. Specifically, UFO considers the multi-task training and brings two-fold impact on the unified model: some closely related tasks have mutual benefits, while some tasks have conflicts against each other. UFO manages to reduce the conflicts and to preserve the mutual benefits through a novel Network Architecture Search (NAS) method. Experiments on a wide range of deep representation learning tasks (i.e., face recognition, person re-identification, vehicle re-identification and product retrieval) show that the model trimmed from UFO achieves higher accuracy than its single-task-trained counterpart and yet has smaller model size, validating the concept of UFO. Besides, UFO also supported the release of 17 billion parameters computer vision (CV) foundation model which is the largest CV model in the industry.
Despite superior performance on many computer vision tasks, deep convolution neural networks are well known to be compressed on devices that have resource constraints. Most existing network pruning methods require laborious human efforts and prohibitive computation resources, especially when the constraints are changed. This practically limits the application of model compression when the model needs to be deployed on a wide range of devices. Besides, existing methods are still challenged by the missing theoretical guidance. In this paper we propose an information theory-inspired strategy for automatic model compression. The principle behind our method is the information bottleneck theory, i.e., the hidden representation should compress information with each other. We thus introduce the normalized Hilbert-Schmidt Independence Criterion (nHSIC) on network activations as a stable and generalized indicator of layer importance. When a certain resource constraint is given, we integrate the HSIC indicator with the constraint to transform the architecture search problem into a linear programming problem with quadratic constraints. Such a problem is easily solved by a convex optimization method with a few seconds. We also provide a rigorous proof to reveal that optimizing the normalized HSIC simultaneously minimizes the mutual information between different layers. Without any search process, our method achieves better compression tradeoffs comparing to the state-of-the-art compression algorithms. For instance, with ResNet-50, we achieve a 45.3%-FLOPs reduction, with a 75.75 top-1 accuracy on ImageNet. Codes are avaliable at https://github.com/MAC-AutoML/ITPruner/tree/master.
Learning discriminative representation using large-scale face datasets in the wild is crucial for real-world applications, yet it remains challenging. The difficulties lie in many aspects and this work focus on computing resource constraint and long-tailed class distribution. Recently, classification-based representation learning with deep neural networks and well-designed losses have demonstrated good recognition performance. However, the computing and memory cost linearly scales up to the number of identities (classes) in the training set, and the learning process suffers from unbalanced classes. In this work, we propose a dynamic class queue (DCQ) to tackle these two problems. Specifically, for each iteration during training, a subset of classes for recognition are dynamically selected and their class weights are dynamically generated on-the-fly which are stored in a queue. Since only a subset of classes is selected for each iteration, the computing requirement is reduced. By using a single server without model parallel, we empirically verify in large-scale datasets that 10% of classes are sufficient to achieve similar performance as using all classes. Moreover, the class weights are dynamically generated in a few-shot manner and therefore suitable for tail classes with only a few instances. We show clear improvement over a strong baseline in the largest public dataset Megaface Challenge2 (MF2) which has 672K identities and over 88% of them have less than 10 instances. Code is available at https://github.com/bilylee/DCQ
Modern deep neural network models are large and computationally intensive. One typical solution to this issue is model pruning. However, most current pruning algorithms depend on hand crafted rules or domain expertise. To overcome this problem, we propose a learning based auto pruning algorithm for deep neural network, which is inspired by recent automatic machine learning(AutoML). A two objectives' problem that aims for the the weights and the best channels for each layer is first formulated. An alternative optimization approach is then proposed to derive the optimal channel numbers and weights simultaneously. In the process of pruning, we utilize a searchable hyperparameter, remaining ratio, to denote the number of channels in each convolution layer, and then a dynamic masking process is proposed to describe the corresponding channel evolution. To control the trade-off between the accuracy of a model and the pruning ratio of floating point operations, a novel loss function is further introduced. Preliminary experimental results on benchmark datasets demonstrate that our scheme achieves competitive results for neural network pruning.
This paper introduces the real image Super-Resolution (SR) challenge that was part of the Advances in Image Manipulation (AIM) workshop, held in conjunction with ECCV 2020. This challenge involves three tracks to super-resolve an input image for $\times$2, $\times$3 and $\times$4 scaling factors, respectively. The goal is to attract more attention to realistic image degradation for the SR task, which is much more complicated and challenging, and contributes to real-world image super-resolution applications. 452 participants were registered for three tracks in total, and 24 teams submitted their results. They gauge the state-of-the-art approaches for real image SR in terms of PSNR and SSIM.
* European Conference on Computer Vision Workshops, 2020
With advancement in deep neural network (DNN), recent state-of-the-art (SOTA) image superresolution (SR) methods have achieved impressive performance using deep residual network with dense skip connections. While these models perform well on benchmark dataset where low-resolution (LR) images are constructed from high-resolution (HR) references with known blur kernel, real image SR is more challenging when both images in the LR-HR pair are collected from real cameras. Based on existing dense residual networks, a Gaussian process based neural architecture search (GP-NAS) scheme is utilized to find candidate network architectures using a large search space by varying the number of dense residual blocks, the block size and the number of features. A suite of heterogeneous models with diverse network structure and hyperparameter are selected for model-ensemble to achieve outstanding performance in real image SR. The proposed method won the first place in all three tracks of the AIM 2020 Real Image Super-Resolution Challenge.
* This is a manuscript related to our algorithm that won the ECCV AIM
2020 Real Image Super-Resolution Challenge
This paper reviews the NTIRE 2020 challenge on real image denoising with focus on the newly introduced dataset, the proposed methods and their results. The challenge is a new version of the previous NTIRE 2019 challenge on real image denoising that was based on the SIDD benchmark. This challenge is based on a newly collected validation and testing image datasets, and hence, named SIDD+. This challenge has two tracks for quantitatively evaluating image denoising performance in (1) the Bayer-pattern rawRGB and (2) the standard RGB (sRGB) color spaces. Each track ~250 registered participants. A total of 22 teams, proposing 24 methods, competed in the final phase of the challenge. The proposed methods by the participating teams represent the current state-of-the-art performance in image denoising targeting real noisy images. The newly collected SIDD+ datasets are publicly available at: https://bit.ly/siddplus_data.