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Xinyu Zhang

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CMRxRecon: An open cardiac MRI dataset for the competition of accelerated image reconstruction

Sep 19, 2023
Chengyan Wang, Jun Lyu, Shuo Wang, Chen Qin, Kunyuan Guo, Xinyu Zhang, Xiaotong Yu, Yan Li, Fanwen Wang, Jianhua Jin, Zhang Shi, Ziqiang Xu, Yapeng Tian, Sha Hua, Zhensen Chen, Meng Liu, Mengting Sun, Xutong Kuang, Kang Wang, Haoran Wang, Hao Li, Yinghua Chu, Guang Yang, Wenjia Bai, Xiahai Zhuang, He Wang, Jing Qin, Xiaobo Qu

Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) has emerged as a valuable diagnostic tool for cardiac diseases. However, a limitation of CMR is its slow imaging speed, which causes patient discomfort and introduces artifacts in the images. There has been growing interest in deep learning-based CMR imaging algorithms that can reconstruct high-quality images from highly under-sampled k-space data. However, the development of deep learning methods requires large training datasets, which have not been publicly available for CMR. To address this gap, we released a dataset that includes multi-contrast, multi-view, multi-slice and multi-coil CMR imaging data from 300 subjects. Imaging studies include cardiac cine and mapping sequences. Manual segmentations of the myocardium and chambers of all the subjects are also provided within the dataset. Scripts of state-of-the-art reconstruction algorithms were also provided as a point of reference. Our aim is to facilitate the advancement of state-of-the-art CMR image reconstruction by introducing standardized evaluation criteria and making the dataset freely accessible to the research community. Researchers can access the dataset at!Synapse:syn51471091/wiki/.

* 14 pages, 8 figures 
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Task Graph offloading via Deep Reinforcement Learning in Mobile Edge Computing

Sep 19, 2023
Jiagang Liu, Yun Mi, Xinyu Zhang

Various mobile applications that comprise dependent tasks are gaining widespread popularity and are increasingly complex. These applications often have low-latency requirements, resulting in a significant surge in demand for computing resources. With the emergence of mobile edge computing (MEC), it becomes the most significant issue to offload the application tasks onto small-scale devices deployed at the edge of the mobile network for obtaining a high-quality user experience. However, since the environment of MEC is dynamic, most existing works focusing on task graph offloading, which rely heavily on expert knowledge or accurate analytical models, fail to fully adapt to such environmental changes, resulting in the reduction of user experience. This paper investigates the task graph offloading in MEC, considering the time-varying computation capabilities of edge computing devices. To adapt to environmental changes, we model the task graph scheduling for computation offloading as a Markov Decision Process (MDP). Then, we design a deep reinforcement learning algorithm (SATA-DRL) to learn the task scheduling strategy from the interaction with the environment, to improve user experience. Extensive simulations validate that SATA-DRL is superior to existing strategies in terms of reducing average makespan and deadline violation.

* 12 pages,13 figures 
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DEFormer: DCT-driven Enhancement Transformer for Low-light Image and Dark Vision

Sep 13, 2023
Xiangchen Yin, Zhenda Yu, Xin Gao, Ran Ju, Xiao Sun, Xinyu Zhang

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The goal of low-light image enhancement is to restore the color and details of the image and is of great significance for high-level visual tasks in autonomous driving. However, it is difficult to restore the lost details in the dark area by relying only on the RGB domain. In this paper we introduce frequency as a new clue into the network and propose a novel DCT-driven enhancement transformer (DEFormer). First, we propose a learnable frequency branch (LFB) for frequency enhancement contains DCT processing and curvature-based frequency enhancement (CFE). CFE calculates the curvature of each channel to represent the detail richness of different frequency bands, then we divides the frequency features, which focuses on frequency bands with richer textures. In addition, we propose a cross domain fusion (CDF) for reducing the differences between the RGB domain and the frequency domain. We also adopt DEFormer as a preprocessing in dark detection, DEFormer effectively improves the performance of the detector, bringing 2.1% and 3.4% improvement in ExDark and DARK FACE datasets on mAP respectively.

* submit to ICRA2024 
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Tackling the Non-IID Issue in Heterogeneous Federated Learning by Gradient Harmonization

Sep 13, 2023
Xinyu Zhang, Weiyu Sun, Ying Chen

Federated learning (FL) is a privacy-preserving paradigm for collaboratively training a global model from decentralized clients. However, the performance of FL is hindered by non-independent and identically distributed (non-IID) data and device heterogeneity. In this work, we revisit this key challenge through the lens of gradient conflicts on the server side. Specifically, we first investigate the gradient conflict phenomenon among multiple clients and reveal that stronger heterogeneity leads to more severe gradient conflicts. To tackle this issue, we propose FedGH, a simple yet effective method that mitigates local drifts through Gradient Harmonization. This technique projects one gradient vector onto the orthogonal plane of the other within conflicting client pairs. Extensive experiments demonstrate that FedGH consistently enhances multiple state-of-the-art FL baselines across diverse benchmarks and non-IID scenarios. Notably, FedGH yields more significant improvements in scenarios with stronger heterogeneity. As a plug-and-play module, FedGH can be seamlessly integrated into any FL framework without requiring hyperparameter tuning.

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Fast Sparse PCA via Positive Semidefinite Projection for Unsupervised Feature Selection

Sep 12, 2023
Junjing Zheng, Xinyu Zhang, Yongxiang Liu, Weidong Jiang, Kai Huo, Li Liu

In the field of unsupervised feature selection, sparse principal component analysis (SPCA) methods have attracted more and more attention recently. Compared to spectral-based methods, SPCA methods don't rely on the construction of a similarity matrix and show better feature selection ability on real-world data. The original SPCA formulates a nonconvex optimization problem. Existing convex SPCA methods reformulate SPCA as a convex model by regarding the reconstruction matrix as an optimization variable. However, they are lack of constraints equivalent to the orthogonality restriction in SPCA, leading to larger solution space. In this paper, it's proved that the optimal solution to a convex SPCA model falls onto the Positive Semidefinite (PSD) cone. A standard convex SPCA-based model with PSD constraint for unsupervised feature selection is proposed. Further, a two-step fast optimization algorithm via PSD projection is presented to solve the proposed model. Two other existing convex SPCA-based models are also proven to have their solutions optimized on the PSD cone in this paper. Therefore, the PSD versions of these two models are proposed to accelerate their convergence as well. We also provide a regularization parameter setting strategy for our proposed method. Experiments on synthetic and real-world datasets demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed methods.

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Knowledge Solver: Teaching LLMs to Search for Domain Knowledge from Knowledge Graphs

Sep 06, 2023
Chao Feng, Xinyu Zhang, Zichu Fei

Large language models (LLMs), such as ChatGPT and GPT-4, are versatile and can solve different tasks due to their emergent ability and generalizability. However, LLMs sometimes lack domain-specific knowledge to perform tasks, which would also cause hallucination during inference. In some previous works, additional modules like graph neural networks (GNNs) are trained on retrieved knowledge from external knowledge bases, aiming to mitigate the problem of lacking domain-specific knowledge. However, incorporating additional modules: 1) would need retraining additional modules when encountering novel domains; 2) would become a bottleneck since LLMs' strong abilities are not fully utilized for retrieval. In this paper, we propose a paradigm, termed Knowledge Solver (KSL), to teach LLMs to search for essential knowledge from external knowledge bases by harnessing their own strong generalizability. Specifically, we design a simple yet effective prompt to transform retrieval into a multi-hop decision sequence, which empowers LLMs with searching knowledge ability in zero-shot manner. Additionally, KSL is able to provide complete retrieval paths and therefore increase explainability of LLMs' reasoning processes. We conduct experiments on three datasets: CommonsenseQA, OpenbookQA, and MedQA-USMLE, and found that our approach improves LLM baseline performance by a relatively large margin.

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Unified Pre-training with Pseudo Texts for Text-To-Image Person Re-identification

Sep 04, 2023
Zhiyin Shao, Xinyu Zhang, Changxing Ding, Jian Wang, Jingdong Wang

The pre-training task is indispensable for the text-to-image person re-identification (T2I-ReID) task. However, there are two underlying inconsistencies between these two tasks that may impact the performance; i) Data inconsistency. A large domain gap exists between the generic images/texts used in public pre-trained models and the specific person data in the T2I-ReID task. This gap is especially severe for texts, as general textual data are usually unable to describe specific people in fine-grained detail. ii) Training inconsistency. The processes of pre-training of images and texts are independent, despite cross-modality learning being critical to T2I-ReID. To address the above issues, we present a new unified pre-training pipeline (UniPT) designed specifically for the T2I-ReID task. We first build a large-scale text-labeled person dataset "LUPerson-T", in which pseudo-textual descriptions of images are automatically generated by the CLIP paradigm using a divide-conquer-combine strategy. Benefiting from this dataset, we then utilize a simple vision-and-language pre-training framework to explicitly align the feature space of the image and text modalities during pre-training. In this way, the pre-training task and the T2I-ReID task are made consistent with each other on both data and training levels. Without the need for any bells and whistles, our UniPT achieves competitive Rank-1 accuracy of, ie, 68.50%, 60.09%, and 51.85% on CUHK-PEDES, ICFG-PEDES and RSTPReid, respectively. Both the LUPerson-T dataset and code are available at https;//

* accepted by ICCV 2023 
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Optimizing Factual Accuracy in Text Generation through Dynamic Knowledge Selection

Aug 30, 2023
Hongjin Qian, Zhicheng Dou, Jiejun Tan, Haonan Chen, Haoqi Gu, Ruofei Lai, Xinyu Zhang, Zhao Cao, Ji-Rong Wen

Language models (LMs) have revolutionized the way we interact with information, but they often generate nonfactual text, raising concerns about their reliability. Previous methods use external knowledge as references for text generation to enhance factuality but often struggle with the knowledge mix-up(e.g., entity mismatch) of irrelevant references. Besides,as the length of the output text grows, the randomness of sampling can escalate, detrimentally impacting the factual accuracy of the generated text. In this paper, we present DKGen, which divide the text generation process into an iterative process. In each iteration, DKGen takes the input query, the previously generated text and a subset of the reference passages as input to generate short text. During the process, the subset is dynamically selected from the full passage set based on their relevance to the previously generated text and the query, largely eliminating the irrelevant references from input. To further enhance DKGen's ability to correctly use these external knowledge, DKGen distills the relevance order of reference passages to the cross-attention distribution of decoder. We train and evaluate DKGen on a large-scale benchmark dataset. Experiment results show that DKGen outperforms all baseline models.

* 15 pages 
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SkipcrossNets: Adaptive Skip-cross Fusion for Road Detection

Aug 24, 2023
Xinyu Zhang, Yan Gong, Zhiwei Li, Xin Gao, Dafeng Jin, Jun Li, Huaping Liu

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Multi-modal fusion is increasingly being used for autonomous driving tasks, as images from different modalities provide unique information for feature extraction. However, the existing two-stream networks are only fused at a specific network layer, which requires a lot of manual attempts to set up. As the CNN goes deeper, the two modal features become more and more advanced and abstract, and the fusion occurs at the feature level with a large gap, which can easily hurt the performance. In this study, we propose a novel fusion architecture called skip-cross networks (SkipcrossNets), which combines adaptively LiDAR point clouds and camera images without being bound to a certain fusion epoch. Specifically, skip-cross connects each layer to each layer in a feed-forward manner, and for each layer, the feature maps of all previous layers are used as input and its own feature maps are used as input to all subsequent layers for the other modality, enhancing feature propagation and multi-modal features fusion. This strategy facilitates selection of the most similar feature layers from two data pipelines, providing a complementary effect for sparse point cloud features during fusion processes. The network is also divided into several blocks to reduce the complexity of feature fusion and the number of model parameters. The advantages of skip-cross fusion were demonstrated through application to the KITTI and A2D2 datasets, achieving a MaxF score of 96.85% on KITTI and an F1 score of 84.84% on A2D2. The model parameters required only 2.33 MB of memory at a speed of 68.24 FPS, which could be viable for mobile terminals and embedded devices.

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HAGRID: A Human-LLM Collaborative Dataset for Generative Information-Seeking with Attribution

Jul 31, 2023
Ehsan Kamalloo, Aref Jafari, Xinyu Zhang, Nandan Thakur, Jimmy Lin

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The rise of large language models (LLMs) had a transformative impact on search, ushering in a new era of search engines that are capable of generating search results in natural language text, imbued with citations for supporting sources. Building generative information-seeking models demands openly accessible datasets, which currently remain lacking. In this paper, we introduce a new dataset, HAGRID (Human-in-the-loop Attributable Generative Retrieval for Information-seeking Dataset) for building end-to-end generative information-seeking models that are capable of retrieving candidate quotes and generating attributed explanations. Unlike recent efforts that focus on human evaluation of black-box proprietary search engines, we built our dataset atop the English subset of MIRACL, a publicly available information retrieval dataset. HAGRID is constructed based on human and LLM collaboration. We first automatically collect attributed explanations that follow an in-context citation style using an LLM, i.e. GPT-3.5. Next, we ask human annotators to evaluate the LLM explanations based on two criteria: informativeness and attributability. HAGRID serves as a catalyst for the development of information-seeking models with better attribution capabilities.

* Data released at 
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