Generalized Category Discovery is a crucial real-world task. Despite the improved performance on known categories, current methods perform poorly on novel categories. We attribute the poor performance to two reasons: biased knowledge transfer between labeled and unlabeled data and noisy representation learning on the unlabeled data. To mitigate these two issues, we propose a Transfer and Alignment Network (TAN), which incorporates two knowledge transfer mechanisms to calibrate the biased knowledge and two feature alignment mechanisms to learn discriminative features. Specifically, we model different categories with prototypes and transfer the prototypes in labeled data to correct model bias towards known categories. On the one hand, we pull instances with known categories in unlabeled data closer to these prototypes to form more compact clusters and avoid boundary overlap between known and novel categories. On the other hand, we use these prototypes to calibrate noisy prototypes estimated from unlabeled data based on category similarities, which allows for more accurate estimation of prototypes for novel categories that can be used as reliable learning targets later. After knowledge transfer, we further propose two feature alignment mechanisms to acquire both instance- and category-level knowledge from unlabeled data by aligning instance features with both augmented features and the calibrated prototypes, which can boost model performance on both known and novel categories with less noise. Experiments on three benchmark datasets show that our model outperforms SOTA methods, especially on novel categories. Theoretical analysis is provided for an in-depth understanding of our model in general. Our code and data are available at https://github.com/Lackel/TAN.
Passive non-line-of-sight (NLOS) imaging has witnessed rapid development in recent years, due to its ability to image objects that are out of sight. The light transport condition plays an important role in this task since changing the conditions will lead to different imaging models. Existing learning-based NLOS methods usually train independent models for different light transport conditions, which is computationally inefficient and impairs the practicality of the models. In this work, we propose NLOS-LTM, a novel passive NLOS imaging method that effectively handles multiple light transport conditions with a single network. We achieve this by inferring a latent light transport representation from the projection image and using this representation to modulate the network that reconstructs the hidden image from the projection image. We train a light transport encoder together with a vector quantizer to obtain the light transport representation. To further regulate this representation, we jointly learn both the reconstruction network and the reprojection network during training. A set of light transport modulation blocks is used to modulate the two jointly trained networks in a multi-scale way. Extensive experiments on a large-scale passive NLOS dataset demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method. The code is available at https://github.com/JerryOctopus/NLOS-LTM.
Generalized Category Discovery (GCD) is a crucial task that aims to recognize both known and novel categories from a set of unlabeled data by utilizing a few labeled data with only known categories. Due to the lack of supervision and category information, current methods usually perform poorly on novel categories and struggle to reveal semantic meanings of the discovered clusters, which limits their applications in the real world. To mitigate above issues, we propose Loop, an end-to-end active-learning framework that introduces Large Language Models (LLMs) into the training loop, which can boost model performance and generate category names without relying on any human efforts. Specifically, we first propose Local Inconsistent Sampling (LIS) to select samples that have a higher probability of falling to wrong clusters, based on neighborhood prediction consistency and entropy of cluster assignment probabilities. Then we propose a Scalable Query strategy to allow LLMs to choose true neighbors of the selected samples from multiple candidate samples. Based on the feedback from LLMs, we perform Refined Neighborhood Contrastive Learning (RNCL) to pull samples and their neighbors closer to learn clustering-friendly representations. Finally, we select representative samples from clusters corresponding to novel categories to allow LLMs to generate category names for them. Extensive experiments on three benchmark datasets show that Loop outperforms SOTA models by a large margin and generates accurate category names for the discovered clusters. We will release our code and data after publication.
Given the capability of mitigating the long-tail deficiencies and intricate-shaped absence prevalent in 3D object detection, occupancy prediction has become a pivotal component in autonomous driving systems. However, the procession of three-dimensional voxel-level representations inevitably introduces large overhead in both memory and computation, obstructing the deployment of to-date occupancy prediction approaches. In contrast to the trend of making the model larger and more complicated, we argue that a desirable framework should be deployment-friendly to diverse chips while maintaining high precision. To this end, we propose a plug-and-play paradigm, namely FlashOCC, to consolidate rapid and memory-efficient occupancy prediction while maintaining high precision. Particularly, our FlashOCC makes two improvements based on the contemporary voxel-level occupancy prediction approaches. Firstly, the features are kept in the BEV, enabling the employment of efficient 2D convolutional layers for feature extraction. Secondly, a channel-to-height transformation is introduced to lift the output logits from the BEV into the 3D space. We apply the FlashOCC to diverse occupancy prediction baselines on the challenging Occ3D-nuScenes benchmarks and conduct extensive experiments to validate the effectiveness. The results substantiate the superiority of our plug-and-play paradigm over previous state-of-the-art methods in terms of precision, runtime efficiency, and memory costs, demonstrating its potential for deployment. The code will be made available.
Nuclei segmentation is a fundamental but challenging task in the quantitative analysis of histopathology images. Although fully-supervised deep learning-based methods have made significant progress, a large number of labeled images are required to achieve great segmentation performance. Considering that manually labeling all nuclei instances for a dataset is inefficient, obtaining a large-scale human-annotated dataset is time-consuming and labor-intensive. Therefore, augmenting a dataset with only a few labeled images to improve the segmentation performance is of significant research and application value. In this paper, we introduce the first diffusion-based augmentation method for nuclei segmentation. The idea is to synthesize a large number of labeled images to facilitate training the segmentation model. To achieve this, we propose a two-step strategy. In the first step, we train an unconditional diffusion model to synthesize the Nuclei Structure that is defined as the representation of pixel-level semantic and distance transform. Each synthetic nuclei structure will serve as a constraint on histopathology image synthesis and is further post-processed to be an instance map. In the second step, we train a conditioned diffusion model to synthesize histopathology images based on nuclei structures. The synthetic histopathology images paired with synthetic instance maps will be added to the real dataset for training the segmentation model. The experimental results show that by augmenting 10% labeled real dataset with synthetic samples, one can achieve comparable segmentation results with the fully-supervised baseline.
Discovering fine-grained categories from coarsely labeled data is a practical and challenging task, which can bridge the gap between the demand for fine-grained analysis and the high annotation cost. Previous works mainly focus on instance-level discrimination to learn low-level features, but ignore semantic similarities between data, which may prevent these models learning compact cluster representations. In this paper, we propose Denoised Neighborhood Aggregation (DNA), a self-supervised framework that encodes semantic structures of data into the embedding space. Specifically, we retrieve k-nearest neighbors of a query as its positive keys to capture semantic similarities between data and then aggregate information from the neighbors to learn compact cluster representations, which can make fine-grained categories more separatable. However, the retrieved neighbors can be noisy and contain many false-positive keys, which can degrade the quality of learned embeddings. To cope with this challenge, we propose three principles to filter out these false neighbors for better representation learning. Furthermore, we theoretically justify that the learning objective of our framework is equivalent to a clustering loss, which can capture semantic similarities between data to form compact fine-grained clusters. Extensive experiments on three benchmark datasets show that our method can retrieve more accurate neighbors (21.31% accuracy improvement) and outperform state-of-the-art models by a large margin (average 9.96% improvement on three metrics). Our code and data are available at https://github.com/Lackel/DNA.
Millimeter-wave (mmWave) radar pointcloud offers attractive potential for 3D sensing, thanks to its robustness in challenging conditions such as smoke and low illumination. However, existing methods failed to simultaneously address the three main challenges in mmWave radar pointcloud reconstruction: specular information lost, low angular resolution, and strong interference and noise. In this paper, we propose DREAM-PCD, a novel framework that combines signal processing and deep learning methods into three well-designed components to tackle all three challenges: Non-Coherent Accumulation for dense points, Synthetic Aperture Accumulation for improved angular resolution, and Real-Denoise Multiframe network for noise and interference removal. Moreover, the causal multiframe and "real-denoise" mechanisms in DREAM-PCD significantly enhance the generalization performance. We also introduce RadarEyes, the largest mmWave indoor dataset with over 1,000,000 frames, featuring a unique design incorporating two orthogonal single-chip radars, lidar, and camera, enriching dataset diversity and applications. Experimental results demonstrate that DREAM-PCD surpasses existing methods in reconstruction quality, and exhibits superior generalization and real-time capabilities, enabling high-quality real-time reconstruction of radar pointcloud under various parameters and scenarios. We believe that DREAM-PCD, along with the RadarEyes dataset, will significantly advance mmWave radar perception in future real-world applications.
Precise crop yield prediction provides valuable information for agricultural planning and decision-making processes. However, timely predicting crop yields remains challenging as crop growth is sensitive to growing season weather variation and climate change. In this work, we develop a deep learning-based solution, namely Multi-Modal Spatial-Temporal Vision Transformer (MMST-ViT), for predicting crop yields at the county level across the United States, by considering the effects of short-term meteorological variations during the growing season and the long-term climate change on crops. Specifically, our MMST-ViT consists of a Multi-Modal Transformer, a Spatial Transformer, and a Temporal Transformer. The Multi-Modal Transformer leverages both visual remote sensing data and short-term meteorological data for modeling the effect of growing season weather variations on crop growth. The Spatial Transformer learns the high-resolution spatial dependency among counties for accurate agricultural tracking. The Temporal Transformer captures the long-range temporal dependency for learning the impact of long-term climate change on crops. Meanwhile, we also devise a novel multi-modal contrastive learning technique to pre-train our model without extensive human supervision. Hence, our MMST-ViT captures the impacts of both short-term weather variations and long-term climate change on crops by leveraging both satellite images and meteorological data. We have conducted extensive experiments on over 200 counties in the United States, with the experimental results exhibiting that our MMST-ViT outperforms its counterparts under three performance metrics of interest.
Deployable polyhedral mechanisms (DPMs) have witnessed flourishing growth in recent years because of their potential applications in robotics, space exploration, structure engineering, etc. This paper firstly presents the construction, mobility and kinematics of a family of Sarrus-inspired deployable polyhedral mechanisms. By carrying out expansion operation and implanting Sarrus linkages along the straight-line motion paths, deployable tetrahedral, cubic and dodecahedral mechanisms are identified and constructed following tetrahedral, octahedral and icosahedral symmetry, respectively. Three paired transformations with synchronized radial motion between Platonic and Archimedean polyhedrons are revealed, and their significant symmetric properties are perfectly remained in each work configuration. Subsequently, with assistant of equivalent prismatic joints, the equivalent analysis strategy for mobility of multiloop polyhedral mechanisms is proposed to significantly simplify the calculation process. This paper hence presents the construction method and equivalent analysis of the Sarrus-inspired DPMs that are not only valuable in theoretical investigation, but also have great potential in practical applications such as mechanical metamaterials, deployable architectures and space exploration.
Knowledge workers frequently encounter repetitive web data entry tasks, like updating records or placing orders. Web automation increases productivity, but translating tasks to web actions accurately and extending to new specifications is challenging. Existing tools can automate tasks that perform the same logical trace of UI actions (e.g., input text in each field in order), but do not support tasks requiring different executions based on varied input conditions. We present DiLogics, a programming-by-demonstration system that utilizes NLP to assist users in creating web automation programs that handle diverse specifications. DiLogics first semantically segments input data to structured task steps. By recording user demonstrations for each step, DiLogics generalizes the web macros to novel but semantically similar task requirements. Our evaluation showed that non-experts can effectively use DiLogics to create automation programs that fulfill diverse input instructions. DiLogics provides an efficient, intuitive, and expressive method for developing web automation programs satisfying diverse specifications.