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Wangmeng Zuo

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Beyond Image Borders: Learning Feature Extrapolation for Unbounded Image Composition

Sep 21, 2023
Xiaoyu Liu, Ming Liu, Junyi Li, Shuai Liu, Xiaotao Wang, Lei Lei, Wangmeng Zuo

For improving image composition and aesthetic quality, most existing methods modulate the captured images by striking out redundant content near the image borders. However, such image cropping methods are limited in the range of image views. Some methods have been suggested to extrapolate the images and predict cropping boxes from the extrapolated image. Nonetheless, the synthesized extrapolated regions may be included in the cropped image, making the image composition result not real and potentially with degraded image quality. In this paper, we circumvent this issue by presenting a joint framework for both unbounded recommendation of camera view and image composition (i.e., UNIC). In this way, the cropped image is a sub-image of the image acquired by the predicted camera view, and thus can be guaranteed to be real and consistent in image quality. Specifically, our framework takes the current camera preview frame as input and provides a recommendation for view adjustment, which contains operations unlimited by the image borders, such as zooming in or out and camera movement. To improve the prediction accuracy of view adjustment prediction, we further extend the field of view by feature extrapolation. After one or several times of view adjustments, our method converges and results in both a camera view and a bounding box showing the image composition recommendation. Extensive experiments are conducted on the datasets constructed upon existing image cropping datasets, showing the effectiveness of our UNIC in unbounded recommendation of camera view and image composition. The source code, dataset, and pretrained models is available at

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MetaF2N: Blind Image Super-Resolution by Learning Efficient Model Adaptation from Faces

Sep 15, 2023
Zhicun Yin, Ming Liu, Xiaoming Li, Hui Yang, Longan Xiao, Wangmeng Zuo

Due to their highly structured characteristics, faces are easier to recover than natural scenes for blind image super-resolution. Therefore, we can extract the degradation representation of an image from the low-quality and recovered face pairs. Using the degradation representation, realistic low-quality images can then be synthesized to fine-tune the super-resolution model for the real-world low-quality image. However, such a procedure is time-consuming and laborious, and the gaps between recovered faces and the ground-truths further increase the optimization uncertainty. To facilitate efficient model adaptation towards image-specific degradations, we propose a method dubbed MetaF2N, which leverages the contained Faces to fine-tune model parameters for adapting to the whole Natural image in a Meta-learning framework. The degradation extraction and low-quality image synthesis steps are thus circumvented in our MetaF2N, and it requires only one fine-tuning step to get decent performance. Considering the gaps between the recovered faces and ground-truths, we further deploy a MaskNet for adaptively predicting loss weights at different positions to reduce the impact of low-confidence areas. To evaluate our proposed MetaF2N, we have collected a real-world low-quality dataset with one or multiple faces in each image, and our MetaF2N achieves superior performance on both synthetic and real-world datasets. Source code, pre-trained models, and collected datasets are available at

* Accepted by ICCV 2023 
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Aggregating Long-term Sharp Features via Hybrid Transformers for Video Deblurring

Sep 13, 2023
Dongwei Ren, Wei Shang, Yi Yang, Wangmeng Zuo

Video deblurring methods, aiming at recovering consecutive sharp frames from a given blurry video, usually assume that the input video suffers from consecutively blurry frames. However, in real-world blurry videos taken by modern imaging devices, sharp frames usually appear in the given video, thus making temporal long-term sharp features available for facilitating the restoration of a blurry frame. In this work, we propose a video deblurring method that leverages both neighboring frames and present sharp frames using hybrid Transformers for feature aggregation. Specifically, we first train a blur-aware detector to distinguish between sharp and blurry frames. Then, a window-based local Transformer is employed for exploiting features from neighboring frames, where cross attention is beneficial for aggregating features from neighboring frames without explicit spatial alignment. To aggregate long-term sharp features from detected sharp frames, we utilize a global Transformer with multi-scale matching capability. Moreover, our method can easily be extended to event-driven video deblurring by incorporating an event fusion module into the global Transformer. Extensive experiments on benchmark datasets demonstrate that our proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art video deblurring methods as well as event-driven video deblurring methods in terms of quantitative metrics and visual quality. The source code and trained models are available at

* 13 pages, 11 figures, and the code is available at 
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Cross-Consistent Deep Unfolding Network for Adaptive All-In-One Video Restoration

Sep 07, 2023
Yuanshuo Cheng, Mingwen Shao, Yecong Wan, Lixu Zhang, Wangmeng Zuo, Deyu Meng

Existing Video Restoration (VR) methods always necessitate the individual deployment of models for each adverse weather to remove diverse adverse weather degradations, lacking the capability for adaptive processing of degradations. Such limitation amplifies the complexity and deployment costs in practical applications. To overcome this deficiency, in this paper, we propose a Cross-consistent Deep Unfolding Network (CDUN) for All-In-One VR, which enables the employment of a single model to remove diverse degradations for the first time. Specifically, the proposed CDUN accomplishes a novel iterative optimization framework, capable of restoring frames corrupted by corresponding degradations according to the degradation features given in advance. To empower the framework for eliminating diverse degradations, we devise a Sequence-wise Adaptive Degradation Estimator (SADE) to estimate degradation features for the input corrupted video. By orchestrating these two cascading procedures, CDUN achieves adaptive processing for diverse degradation. In addition, we introduce a window-based inter-frame fusion strategy to utilize information from more adjacent frames. This strategy involves the progressive stacking of temporal windows in multiple iterations, effectively enlarging the temporal receptive field and enabling each frame's restoration to leverage information from distant frames. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed method achieves state-of-the-art performance in All-In-One VR.

* 16 pages, 13 figures 
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Ref-Diff: Zero-shot Referring Image Segmentation with Generative Models

Sep 01, 2023
Minheng Ni, Yabo Zhang, Kailai Feng, Xiaoming Li, Yiwen Guo, Wangmeng Zuo

Zero-shot referring image segmentation is a challenging task because it aims to find an instance segmentation mask based on the given referring descriptions, without training on this type of paired data. Current zero-shot methods mainly focus on using pre-trained discriminative models (e.g., CLIP). However, we have observed that generative models (e.g., Stable Diffusion) have potentially understood the relationships between various visual elements and text descriptions, which are rarely investigated in this task. In this work, we introduce a novel Referring Diffusional segmentor (Ref-Diff) for this task, which leverages the fine-grained multi-modal information from generative models. We demonstrate that without a proposal generator, a generative model alone can achieve comparable performance to existing SOTA weakly-supervised models. When we combine both generative and discriminative models, our Ref-Diff outperforms these competing methods by a significant margin. This indicates that generative models are also beneficial for this task and can complement discriminative models for better referring segmentation. Our code is publicly available at

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UniM$^2$AE: Multi-modal Masked Autoencoders with Unified 3D Representation for 3D Perception in Autonomous Driving

Aug 30, 2023
Jian Zou, Tianyu Huang, Guanglei Yang, Zhenhua Guo, Wangmeng Zuo

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Masked Autoencoders (MAE) play a pivotal role in learning potent representations, delivering outstanding results across various 3D perception tasks essential for autonomous driving. In real-world driving scenarios, it's commonplace to deploy multiple sensors for comprehensive environment perception. While integrating multi-modal features from these sensors can produce rich and powerful features, there is a noticeable gap in MAE methods addressing this integration. This research delves into multi-modal Masked Autoencoders tailored for a unified representation space in autonomous driving, aiming to pioneer a more efficient fusion of two distinct modalities. To intricately marry the semantics inherent in images with the geometric intricacies of LiDAR point clouds, the UniM$^2$AE is proposed. This model stands as a potent yet straightforward, multi-modal self-supervised pre-training framework, mainly consisting of two designs. First, it projects the features from both modalities into a cohesive 3D volume space, ingeniously expanded from the bird's eye view (BEV) to include the height dimension. The extension makes it possible to back-project the informative features, obtained by fusing features from both modalities, into their native modalities to reconstruct the multiple masked inputs. Second, the Multi-modal 3D Interactive Module (MMIM) is invoked to facilitate the efficient inter-modal interaction during the interaction process. Extensive experiments conducted on the nuScenes Dataset attest to the efficacy of UniM$^2$AE, indicating enhancements in 3D object detection and BEV map segmentation by 1.2\%(NDS) and 6.5\% (mIoU), respectively. Code is available at

* Code available at 
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VQ-Font: Few-Shot Font Generation with Structure-Aware Enhancement and Quantization

Aug 27, 2023
Mingshuai Yao, Yabo Zhang, Xianhui Lin, Xiaoming Li, Wangmeng Zuo

Figure 1 for VQ-Font: Few-Shot Font Generation with Structure-Aware Enhancement and Quantization
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Few-shot font generation is challenging, as it needs to capture the fine-grained stroke styles from a limited set of reference glyphs, and then transfer to other characters, which are expected to have similar styles. However, due to the diversity and complexity of Chinese font styles, the synthesized glyphs of existing methods usually exhibit visible artifacts, such as missing details and distorted strokes. In this paper, we propose a VQGAN-based framework (i.e., VQ-Font) to enhance glyph fidelity through token prior refinement and structure-aware enhancement. Specifically, we pre-train a VQGAN to encapsulate font token prior within a codebook. Subsequently, VQ-Font refines the synthesized glyphs with the codebook to eliminate the domain gap between synthesized and real-world strokes. Furthermore, our VQ-Font leverages the inherent design of Chinese characters, where structure components such as radicals and character components are combined in specific arrangements, to recalibrate fine-grained styles based on references. This process improves the matching and fusion of styles at the structure level. Both modules collaborate to enhance the fidelity of the generated fonts. Experiments on a collected font dataset show that our VQ-Font outperforms the competing methods both quantitatively and qualitatively, especially in generating challenging styles.

* 13 pages, 14 figures 
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Rethinking Client Drift in Federated Learning: A Logit Perspective

Aug 20, 2023
Yunlu Yan, Chun-Mei Feng, Mang Ye, Wangmeng Zuo, Ping Li, Rick Siow Mong Goh, Lei Zhu, C. L. Philip Chen

Figure 1 for Rethinking Client Drift in Federated Learning: A Logit Perspective
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Federated Learning (FL) enables multiple clients to collaboratively learn in a distributed way, allowing for privacy protection. However, the real-world non-IID data will lead to client drift which degrades the performance of FL. Interestingly, we find that the difference in logits between the local and global models increases as the model is continuously updated, thus seriously deteriorating FL performance. This is mainly due to catastrophic forgetting caused by data heterogeneity between clients. To alleviate this problem, we propose a new algorithm, named FedCSD, a Class prototype Similarity Distillation in a federated framework to align the local and global models. FedCSD does not simply transfer global knowledge to local clients, as an undertrained global model cannot provide reliable knowledge, i.e., class similarity information, and its wrong soft labels will mislead the optimization of local models. Concretely, FedCSD introduces a class prototype similarity distillation to align the local logits with the refined global logits that are weighted by the similarity between local logits and the global prototype. To enhance the quality of global logits, FedCSD adopts an adaptive mask to filter out the terrible soft labels of the global models, thereby preventing them to mislead local optimization. Extensive experiments demonstrate the superiority of our method over the state-of-the-art federated learning approaches in various heterogeneous settings. The source code will be released.

* 11 pages, 7 figures 
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