In contrast to regular (simple) networks, hyper networks possess the ability to depict more complex relationships among nodes and store extensive information. Such networks are commonly found in real-world applications, such as in social interactions. Learning embedded representations for nodes involves a process that translates network structures into more simplified spaces, thereby enabling the application of machine learning approaches designed for vector data to be extended to network data. Nevertheless, there remains a need to delve into methods for learning embedded representations that prioritize structural aspects. This research introduces HyperS2V, a node embedding approach that centers on the structural similarity within hyper networks. Initially, we establish the concept of hyper-degrees to capture the structural properties of nodes within hyper networks. Subsequently, a novel function is formulated to measure the structural similarity between different hyper-degree values. Lastly, we generate structural embeddings utilizing a multi-scale random walk framework. Moreover, a series of experiments, both intrinsic and extrinsic, are performed on both toy and real networks. The results underscore the superior performance of HyperS2V in terms of both interpretability and applicability to downstream tasks.
Defect inspection is paramount within the closed-loop manufacturing system. However, existing datasets for defect inspection often lack precision and semantic granularity required for practical applications. In this paper, we introduce the Defect Spectrum, a comprehensive benchmark that offers precise, semantic-abundant, and large-scale annotations for a wide range of industrial defects. Building on four key industrial benchmarks, our dataset refines existing annotations and introduces rich semantic details, distinguishing multiple defect types within a single image. Furthermore, we introduce Defect-Gen, a two-stage diffusion-based generator designed to create high-quality and diverse defective images, even when working with limited datasets. The synthetic images generated by Defect-Gen significantly enhance the efficacy of defect inspection models. Overall, The Defect Spectrum dataset demonstrates its potential in defect inspection research, offering a solid platform for testing and refining advanced models.
Denoising Diffusion Probabilistic Models (DDPMs) have garnered popularity for data generation across various domains. However, a significant bottleneck is the necessity for whole-network computation during every step of the generative process, leading to high computational overheads. This paper presents a novel framework, Denoising Diffusion Step-aware Models (DDSM), to address this challenge. Unlike conventional approaches, DDSM employs a spectrum of neural networks whose sizes are adapted according to the importance of each generative step, as determined through evolutionary search. This step-wise network variation effectively circumvents redundant computational efforts, particularly in less critical steps, thereby enhancing the efficiency of the diffusion model. Furthermore, the step-aware design can be seamlessly integrated with other efficiency-geared diffusion models such as DDIMs and latent diffusion, thus broadening the scope of computational savings. Empirical evaluations demonstrate that DDSM achieves computational savings of 49% for CIFAR-10, 61% for CelebA-HQ, 59% for LSUN-bedroom, 71% for AFHQ, and 76% for ImageNet, all without compromising the generation quality. Our code and models will be publicly available.
Multi-task learning (MTL), a learning paradigm to learn multiple related tasks simultaneously, has achieved great success in various fields. However, task-balancing remains a significant challenge in MTL, with the disparity in loss/gradient scales often leading to performance compromises. In this paper, we propose a Scale-Invariant Multi-Task Learning (SI-MTL) method to alleviate the task-balancing problem from both loss and gradient perspectives. Specifically, SI-MTL contains a logarithm transformation which is performed on all task losses to ensure scale-invariant at the loss level, and a gradient balancing method, SI-G, which normalizes all task gradients to the same magnitude as the maximum gradient norm. Extensive experiments conducted on several benchmark datasets consistently demonstrate the effectiveness of SI-G and the state-of-the-art performance of SI-MTL.
Although perception systems have made remarkable advancements in recent years, they still rely on explicit human instruction to identify the target objects or categories before executing visual recognition tasks. Such systems lack the ability to actively reason and comprehend implicit user intentions. In this work, we propose a new segmentation task -- reasoning segmentation. The task is designed to output a segmentation mask given a complex and implicit query text. Furthermore, we establish a benchmark comprising over one thousand image-instruction pairs, incorporating intricate reasoning and world knowledge for evaluation purposes. Finally, we present LISA: large Language Instructed Segmentation Assistant, which inherits the language generation capabilities of the multi-modal Large Language Model (LLM) while also possessing the ability to produce segmentation masks. We expand the original vocabulary with a <SEG> token and propose the embedding-as-mask paradigm to unlock the segmentation capability. Remarkably, LISA can handle cases involving: 1) complex reasoning; 2) world knowledge; 3) explanatory answers; 4) multi-turn conversation. Also, it demonstrates robust zero-shot capability when trained exclusively on reasoning-free datasets. In addition, fine-tuning the model with merely 239 reasoning segmentation image-instruction pairs results in further performance enhancement. Experiments show our method not only unlocks new reasoning segmentation capabilities but also proves effective in both complex reasoning segmentation and standard referring segmentation tasks. Code, models, and demo are at https://github.com/dvlab-research/LISA.
Conditional diffusion models have demonstrated impressive performance in image manipulation tasks. The general pipeline involves adding noise to the image and then denoising it. However, this method faces a trade-off problem: adding too much noise affects the fidelity of the image while adding too little affects its editability. This largely limits their practical applicability. In this paper, we propose a novel framework, Selective Diffusion Distillation (SDD), that ensures both the fidelity and editability of images. Instead of directly editing images with a diffusion model, we train a feedforward image manipulation network under the guidance of the diffusion model. Besides, we propose an effective indicator to select the semantic-related timestep to obtain the correct semantic guidance from the diffusion model. This approach successfully avoids the dilemma caused by the diffusion process. Our extensive experiments demonstrate the advantages of our framework. Code is released at https://github.com/AndysonYs/Selective-Diffusion-Distillation.
Few-shot semantic segmentation (FSS) aims to form class-agnostic models segmenting unseen classes with only a handful of annotations. Previous methods limited to the semantic feature and prototype representation suffer from coarse segmentation granularity and train-set overfitting. In this work, we design Hierarchically Decoupled Matching Network (HDMNet) mining pixel-level support correlation based on the transformer architecture. The self-attention modules are used to assist in establishing hierarchical dense features, as a means to accomplish the cascade matching between query and support features. Moreover, we propose a matching module to reduce train-set overfitting and introduce correlation distillation leveraging semantic correspondence from coarse resolution to boost fine-grained segmentation. Our method performs decently in experiments. We achieve 50.0% mIoU on COCO dataset one-shot setting and 56.0% on five-shot segmentation, respectively. The code will be available on the project website. We hope our work can benefit broader industrial applications where novel classes with limited annotations are required to be decently identified.
Synthesizing photo-realistic images from a point cloud is challenging because of the sparsity of point cloud representation. Recent Neural Radiance Fields and extensions are proposed to synthesize realistic images from 2D input. In this paper, we present Point2Pix as a novel point renderer to link the 3D sparse point clouds with 2D dense image pixels. Taking advantage of the point cloud 3D prior and NeRF rendering pipeline, our method can synthesize high-quality images from colored point clouds, generally for novel indoor scenes. To improve the efficiency of ray sampling, we propose point-guided sampling, which focuses on valid samples. Also, we present Point Encoding to build Multi-scale Radiance Fields that provide discriminative 3D point features. Finally, we propose Fusion Encoding to efficiently synthesize high-quality images. Extensive experiments on the ScanNet and ArkitScenes datasets demonstrate the effectiveness and generalization.