With the emergence of Large Language Models (LLMs) and Vision Foundation Models (VFMs), multimodal AI systems benefiting from large models have the potential to equally perceive the real world, make decisions, and control tools as humans. In recent months, LLMs have shown widespread attention in autonomous driving and map systems. Despite its immense potential, there is still a lack of a comprehensive understanding of key challenges, opportunities, and future endeavors to apply in LLM driving systems. In this paper, we present a systematic investigation in this field. We first introduce the background of Multimodal Large Language Models (MLLMs), the multimodal models development using LLMs, and the history of autonomous driving. Then, we overview existing MLLM tools for driving, transportation, and map systems together with existing datasets and benchmarks. Moreover, we summarized the works in The 1st WACV Workshop on Large Language and Vision Models for Autonomous Driving (LLVM-AD), which is the first workshop of its kind regarding LLMs in autonomous driving. To further promote the development of this field, we also discuss several important problems regarding using MLLMs in autonomous driving systems that need to be solved by both academia and industry.
Autonomous identification and evaluation of safe landing zones are of paramount importance for ensuring the safety and effectiveness of aerial robots in the event of system failures, low battery, or the successful completion of specific tasks. In this paper, we present a novel approach for detection and assessment of potential landing sites for safe quadrotor landing. Our solution efficiently integrates 2D and 3D environmental information, eliminating the need for external aids such as GPS and computationally intensive elevation maps. The proposed pipeline combines semantic data derived from a Neural Network (NN), to extract environmental features, with geometric data obtained from a disparity map, to extract critical geometric attributes such as slope, flatness, and roughness. We define several cost metrics based on these attributes to evaluate safety, stability, and suitability of regions in the environments and identify the most suitable landing area. Our approach runs in real-time on quadrotors equipped with limited computational capabilities. Experimental results conducted in diverse environments demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively assess and identify suitable landing areas, enabling the safe and autonomous landing of a quadrotor.
We propose the first Large Reconstruction Model (LRM) that predicts the 3D model of an object from a single input image within just 5 seconds. In contrast to many previous methods that are trained on small-scale datasets such as ShapeNet in a category-specific fashion, LRM adopts a highly scalable transformer-based architecture with 500 million learnable parameters to directly predict a neural radiance field (NeRF) from the input image. We train our model in an end-to-end manner on massive multi-view data containing around 1 million objects, including both synthetic renderings from Objaverse and real captures from MVImgNet. This combination of a high-capacity model and large-scale training data empowers our model to be highly generalizable and produce high-quality 3D reconstructions from various testing inputs including real-world in-the-wild captures and images from generative models. Video demos and interactable 3D meshes can be found on this website: https://yiconghong.me/LRM/.
Utilizing visual place recognition (VPR) technology to ascertain the geographical location of publicly available images is a pressing issue for real-world VPR applications. Although most current VPR methods achieve favorable results under ideal conditions, their performance in complex environments, characterized by lighting variations, seasonal changes, and occlusions caused by moving objects, is generally unsatisfactory. In this study, we utilize the DINOv2 model as the backbone network for trimming and fine-tuning to extract robust image features. We propose a novel VPR architecture called DINO-Mix, which combines a foundational vision model with feature aggregation. This architecture relies on the powerful image feature extraction capabilities of foundational vision models. We employ an MLP-Mixer-based mix module to aggregate image features, resulting in globally robust and generalizable descriptors that enable high-precision VPR. We experimentally demonstrate that the proposed DINO-Mix architecture significantly outperforms current state-of-the-art (SOTA) methods. In test sets having lighting variations, seasonal changes, and occlusions (Tokyo24/7, Nordland, SF-XL-Testv1), our proposed DINO-Mix architecture achieved Top-1 accuracy rates of 91.75%, 80.18%, and 82%, respectively. Compared with SOTA methods, our architecture exhibited an average accuracy improvement of 5.14%.
Federated learning (FL) is a promising paradigm to enable collaborative model training with decentralized data. However, the training process of Large Language Models (LLMs) generally incurs the update of significant parameters, which limits the applicability of FL techniques to tackle the LLMs in real scenarios. Prompt tuning can significantly reduce the number of parameters to update, but it either incurs performance degradation or low training efficiency. The straightforward utilization of prompt tuning in the FL often raises non-trivial communication costs and dramatically degrades performance. In addition, the decentralized data is generally non-Independent and Identically Distributed (non-IID), which brings client drift problems and thus poor performance. This paper proposes a Parameter-efficient prompt Tuning approach with Adaptive Optimization, i.e., FedPepTAO, to enable efficient and effective FL of LLMs. First, an efficient partial prompt tuning approach is proposed to improve performance and efficiency simultaneously. Second, a novel adaptive optimization method is developed to address the client drift problems on both the device and server sides to enhance performance further. Extensive experiments based on 10 datasets demonstrate the superb performance (up to 60.8\% in terms of accuracy) and efficiency (up to 97.59\% in terms of training time) of FedPepTAO compared with 9 baseline approaches. Our code is available at https://github.com/llm-eff/FedPepTAO.
This paper presents a novel object-centric contact representation ContactGen for hand-object interaction. The ContactGen comprises three components: a contact map indicates the contact location, a part map represents the contact hand part, and a direction map tells the contact direction within each part. Given an input object, we propose a conditional generative model to predict ContactGen and adopt model-based optimization to predict diverse and geometrically feasible grasps. Experimental results demonstrate our method can generate high-fidelity and diverse human grasps for various objects. Project page: https://stevenlsw.github.io/contactgen/
Predicting vehicle trajectories is crucial for ensuring automated vehicle operation efficiency and safety, particularly on congested multi-lane highways. In such dynamic environments, a vehicle's motion is determined by its historical behaviors as well as interactions with surrounding vehicles. These intricate interactions arise from unpredictable motion patterns, leading to a wide range of driving behaviors that warrant in-depth investigation. This study presents the Graph-based Interaction-aware Multi-modal Trajectory Prediction (GIMTP) framework, designed to probabilistically predict future vehicle trajectories by effectively capturing these interactions. Within this framework, vehicles' motions are conceptualized as nodes in a time-varying graph, and the traffic interactions are represented by a dynamic adjacency matrix. To holistically capture both spatial and temporal dependencies embedded in this dynamic adjacency matrix, the methodology incorporates the Diffusion Graph Convolutional Network (DGCN), thereby providing a graph embedding of both historical states and future states. Furthermore, we employ a driving intention-specific feature fusion, enabling the adaptive integration of historical and future embeddings for enhanced intention recognition and trajectory prediction. This model gives two-dimensional predictions for each mode of longitudinal and lateral driving behaviors and offers probabilistic future paths with corresponding probabilities, addressing the challenges of complex vehicle interactions and multi-modality of driving behaviors. Validation using real-world trajectory datasets demonstrates the efficiency and potential.
The emergence of artificial intelligence-generated content (AIGC) has raised concerns about the authenticity of multimedia content in various fields. However, existing research for forgery content detection has focused mainly on binary classification tasks of complete videos, which has limited applicability in industrial settings. To address this gap, we propose UMMAFormer, a novel universal transformer framework for temporal forgery localization (TFL) that predicts forgery segments with multimodal adaptation. Our approach introduces a Temporal Feature Abnormal Attention (TFAA) module based on temporal feature reconstruction to enhance the detection of temporal differences. We also design a Parallel Cross-Attention Feature Pyramid Network (PCA-FPN) to optimize the Feature Pyramid Network (FPN) for subtle feature enhancement. To evaluate the proposed method, we contribute a novel Temporal Video Inpainting Localization (TVIL) dataset specifically tailored for video inpainting scenes. Our experiments show that our approach achieves state-of-the-art performance on benchmark datasets, including Lav-DF, TVIL, and Psynd, significantly outperforming previous methods. The code and data are available at https://github.com/ymhzyj/UMMAFormer/.
Hands are dexterous and highly versatile manipulators that are central to how humans interact with objects and their environment. Consequently, modeling realistic hand-object interactions, including the subtle motion of individual fingers, is critical for applications in computer graphics, computer vision, and mixed reality. Prior work on capturing and modeling humans interacting with objects in 3D focuses on the body and object motion, often ignoring hand pose. In contrast, we introduce GRIP, a learning-based method that takes, as input, the 3D motion of the body and the object, and synthesizes realistic motion for both hands before, during, and after object interaction. As a preliminary step before synthesizing the hand motion, we first use a network, ANet, to denoise the arm motion. Then, we leverage the spatio-temporal relationship between the body and the object to extract two types of novel temporal interaction cues, and use them in a two-stage inference pipeline to generate the hand motion. In the first stage, we introduce a new approach to enforce motion temporal consistency in the latent space (LTC), and generate consistent interaction motions. In the second stage, GRIP generates refined hand poses to avoid hand-object penetrations. Given sequences of noisy body and object motion, GRIP upgrades them to include hand-object interaction. Quantitative experiments and perceptual studies demonstrate that GRIP outperforms baseline methods and generalizes to unseen objects and motions from different motion-capture datasets.