Existing emotion prediction benchmarks contain coarse emotion labels which do not consider the diversity of emotions that an image and text can elicit in humans due to various reasons. Learning diverse reactions to multimodal content is important as intelligent machines take a central role in generating and delivering content to society. To address this gap, we propose Socratis, a societal reactions benchmark, where each image-caption (IC) pair is annotated with multiple emotions and the reasons for feeling them. Socratis contains 18K free-form reactions for 980 emotions on 2075 image-caption pairs from 5 widely-read news and image-caption (IC) datasets. We benchmark the capability of state-of-the-art multimodal large language models to generate the reasons for feeling an emotion given an IC pair. Based on a preliminary human study, we observe that humans prefer human-written reasons over 2 times more often than machine-generated ones. This shows our task is harder than standard generation tasks because it starkly contrasts recent findings where humans cannot tell apart machine vs human-written news articles, for instance. We further see that current captioning metrics based on large vision-language models also fail to correlate with human preferences. We hope that these findings and our benchmark will inspire further research on training emotionally aware models.
Long-term activity forecasting is an especially challenging research problem because it requires understanding the temporal relationships between observed actions, as well as the variability and complexity of human activities. Despite relying on strong supervision via expensive human annotations, state-of-the-art forecasting approaches often generalize poorly to unseen data. To alleviate this issue, we propose Multiscale Video Pretraining (MVP), a novel self-supervised pretraining approach that learns robust representations for forecasting by learning to predict contextualized representations of future video clips over multiple timescales. MVP is based on our observation that actions in videos have a multiscale nature, where atomic actions typically occur at a short timescale and more complex actions may span longer timescales. We compare MVP to state-of-the-art self-supervised video learning approaches on downstream long-term forecasting tasks including long-term action anticipation and video summary prediction. Our comprehensive experiments across the Ego4D and Epic-Kitchens-55/100 datasets demonstrate that MVP out-performs state-of-the-art methods by significant margins. Notably, MVP obtains a relative performance gain of over 20% accuracy in video summary forecasting over existing methods.
In egocentric action recognition a single population model is typically trained and subsequently embodied on a head-mounted device, such as an augmented reality headset. While this model remains static for new users and environments, we introduce an adaptive paradigm of two phases, where after pretraining a population model, the model adapts on-device and online to the user's experience. This setting is highly challenging due to the change from population to user domain and the distribution shifts in the user's data stream. Coping with the latter in-stream distribution shifts is the focus of continual learning, where progress has been rooted in controlled benchmarks but challenges faced in real-world applications often remain unaddressed. We introduce EgoAdapt, a benchmark for real-world egocentric action recognition that facilitates our two-phased adaptive paradigm, and real-world challenges naturally occur in the egocentric video streams from Ego4d, such as long-tailed action distributions and large-scale classification over 2740 actions. We introduce an evaluation framework that directly exploits the user's data stream with new metrics to measure the adaptation gain over the population model, online generalization, and hindsight performance. In contrast to single-stream evaluation in existing works, our framework proposes a meta-evaluation that aggregates the results from 50 independent user streams. We provide an extensive empirical study for finetuning and experience replay.
We propose a self-supervised approach for learning to perform audio source separation in videos based on natural language queries, using only unlabeled video and audio pairs as training data. A key challenge in this task is learning to associate the linguistic description of a sound-emitting object to its visual features and the corresponding components of the audio waveform, all without access to annotations during training. To overcome this challenge, we adapt off-the-shelf vision-language foundation models to provide pseudo-target supervision via two novel loss functions and encourage a stronger alignment between the audio, visual and natural language modalities. During inference, our approach can separate sounds given text, video and audio input, or given text and audio input alone. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our self-supervised approach on three audio-visual separation datasets, including MUSIC, SOLOS and AudioSet, where we outperform state-of-the-art strongly supervised approaches despite not using object detectors or text labels during training.
Recent self-supervised approaches have used large-scale image-text datasets to learn powerful representations that transfer to many tasks without finetuning. These methods often assume that there is one-to-one correspondence between its images and their (short) captions. However, many tasks require reasoning about multiple images and long text narratives, such as describing news articles with visual summaries. Thus, we explore a novel setting where the goal is to learn a self-supervised visual-language representation that is robust to varying text length and the number of images. In addition, unlike prior work which assumed captions have a literal relation to the image, we assume images only contain loose illustrative correspondence with the text. To explore this problem, we introduce a large-scale multimodal dataset containing over 31M articles, 22M images and 1M videos. We show that state-of-the-art image-text alignment methods are not robust to longer narratives with multiple images. Finally, we introduce an intuitive baseline that outperforms these methods on zero-shot image-set retrieval by 10% on the GoodNews dataset.
We introduce the task of spatially localizing narrated interactions in videos. Key to our approach is the ability to learn to spatially localize interactions with self-supervision on a large corpus of videos with accompanying transcribed narrations. To achieve this goal, we propose a multilayer cross-modal attention network that enables effective optimization of a contrastive loss during training. We introduce a divided strategy that alternates between computing inter- and intra-modal attention across the visual and natural language modalities, which allows effective training via directly contrasting the two modalities' representations. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by self-training on the HowTo100M instructional video dataset and evaluating on a newly collected dataset of localized described interactions in the YouCook2 dataset. We show that our approach outperforms alternative baselines, including shallow co-attention and full cross-modal attention. We also apply our approach to grounding phrases in images with weak supervision on Flickr30K and show that stacking multiple attention layers is effective and, when combined with a word-to-region loss, achieves state of the art on recall-at-one and pointing hand accuracies.
Large-scale dissemination of disinformation online intended to mislead or deceive the general population is a major societal problem. Rapid progression in image, video, and natural language generative models has only exacerbated this situation and intensified our need for an effective defense mechanism. While existing approaches have been proposed to defend against neural fake news, they are generally constrained to the very limited setting where articles only have text and metadata such as the title and authors. In this paper, we introduce the more realistic and challenging task of defending against machine-generated news that also includes images and captions. To identify the possible weaknesses that adversaries can exploit, we create a NeuralNews dataset composed of 4 different types of generated articles as well as conduct a series of human user study experiments based on this dataset. In addition to the valuable insights gleaned from our user study experiments, we provide a relatively effective approach based on detecting visual-semantic inconsistencies, which will serve as an effective first line of defense and a useful reference for future work in defending against machine-generated disinformation.