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Ranjay Krishna

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Imitating Shortest Paths in Simulation Enables Effective Navigation and Manipulation in the Real World

Dec 05, 2023
Kiana Ehsani, Tanmay Gupta, Rose Hendrix, Jordi Salvador, Luca Weihs, Kuo-Hao Zeng, Kunal Pratap Singh, Yejin Kim, Winson Han, Alvaro Herrasti, Ranjay Krishna, Dustin Schwenk, Eli VanderBilt, Aniruddha Kembhavi

Reinforcement learning (RL) with dense rewards and imitation learning (IL) with human-generated trajectories are the most widely used approaches for training modern embodied agents. RL requires extensive reward shaping and auxiliary losses and is often too slow and ineffective for long-horizon tasks. While IL with human supervision is effective, collecting human trajectories at scale is extremely expensive. In this work, we show that imitating shortest-path planners in simulation produces agents that, given a language instruction, can proficiently navigate, explore, and manipulate objects in both simulation and in the real world using only RGB sensors (no depth map or GPS coordinates). This surprising result is enabled by our end-to-end, transformer-based, SPOC architecture, powerful visual encoders paired with extensive image augmentation, and the dramatic scale and diversity of our training data: millions of frames of shortest-path-expert trajectories collected inside approximately 200,000 procedurally generated houses containing 40,000 unique 3D assets. Our models, data, training code, and newly proposed 10-task benchmarking suite CHORES will be open-sourced.

* First six authors contributed equally. Project page: 
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Lasagna: Layered Score Distillation for Disentangled Object Relighting

Nov 30, 2023
Dina Bashkirova, Arijit Ray, Rupayan Mallick, Sarah Adel Bargal, Jianming Zhang, Ranjay Krishna, Kate Saenko

Professional artists, photographers, and other visual content creators use object relighting to establish their photo's desired effect. Unfortunately, manual tools that allow relighting have a steep learning curve and are difficult to master. Although generative editing methods now enable some forms of image editing, relighting is still beyond today's capabilities; existing methods struggle to keep other aspects of the image -- colors, shapes, and textures -- consistent after the edit. We propose Lasagna, a method that enables intuitive text-guided relighting control. Lasagna learns a lighting prior by using score distillation sampling to distill the prior of a diffusion model, which has been finetuned on synthetic relighting data. To train Lasagna, we curate a new synthetic dataset ReLiT, which contains 3D object assets re-lit from multiple light source locations. Despite training on synthetic images, quantitative results show that Lasagna relights real-world images while preserving other aspects of the input image, outperforming state-of-the-art text-guided image editing methods. Lasagna enables realistic and controlled results on natural images and digital art pieces and is preferred by humans over other methods in over 91% of cases. Finally, we demonstrate the versatility of our learning objective by extending it to allow colorization, another form of image editing.

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DreamSync: Aligning Text-to-Image Generation with Image Understanding Feedback

Nov 29, 2023
Jiao Sun, Deqing Fu, Yushi Hu, Su Wang, Royi Rassin, Da-Cheng Juan, Dana Alon, Charles Herrmann, Sjoerd van Steenkiste, Ranjay Krishna, Cyrus Rashtchian

Despite their wide-spread success, Text-to-Image models (T2I) still struggle to produce images that are both aesthetically pleasing and faithful to the user's input text. We introduce DreamSync, a model-agnostic training algorithm by design that improves T2I models to be faithful to the text input. DreamSync builds off a recent insight from TIFA's evaluation framework -- that large vision-language models (VLMs) can effectively identify the fine-grained discrepancies between generated images and the text inputs. DreamSync uses this insight to train T2I models without any labeled data; it improves T2I models using its own generations. First, it prompts the model to generate several candidate images for a given input text. Then, it uses two VLMs to select the best generation: a Visual Question Answering model that measures the alignment of generated images to the text, and another that measures the generation's aesthetic quality. After selection, we use LoRA to iteratively finetune the T2I model to guide its generation towards the selected best generations. DreamSync does not need any additional human annotation. model architecture changes, or reinforcement learning. Despite its simplicity, DreamSync improves both the semantic alignment and aesthetic appeal of two diffusion-based T2I models, evidenced by multiple benchmarks (+1.7% on TIFA, +2.9% on DSG1K, +3.4% on VILA aesthetic) and human evaluation.

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Selective Visual Representations Improve Convergence and Generalization for Embodied AI

Nov 07, 2023
Ainaz Eftekhar, Kuo-Hao Zeng, Jiafei Duan, Ali Farhadi, Ani Kembhavi, Ranjay Krishna

Embodied AI models often employ off the shelf vision backbones like CLIP to encode their visual observations. Although such general purpose representations encode rich syntactic and semantic information about the scene, much of this information is often irrelevant to the specific task at hand. This introduces noise within the learning process and distracts the agent's focus from task-relevant visual cues. Inspired by selective attention in humans-the process through which people filter their perception based on their experiences, knowledge, and the task at hand-we introduce a parameter-efficient approach to filter visual stimuli for embodied AI. Our approach induces a task-conditioned bottleneck using a small learnable codebook module. This codebook is trained jointly to optimize task reward and acts as a task-conditioned selective filter over the visual observation. Our experiments showcase state-of-the-art performance for object goal navigation and object displacement across 5 benchmarks, ProcTHOR, ArchitecTHOR, RoboTHOR, AI2-iTHOR, and ManipulaTHOR. The filtered representations produced by the codebook are also able generalize better and converge faster when adapted to other simulation environments such as Habitat. Our qualitative analyses show that agents explore their environments more effectively and their representations retain task-relevant information like target object recognition while ignoring superfluous information about other objects. Code and pretrained models are available at our project website:

* See project website: 
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Improving Interpersonal Communication by Simulating Audiences with Language Models

Nov 03, 2023
Ryan Liu, Howard Yen, Raja Marjieh, Thomas L. Griffiths, Ranjay Krishna

How do we communicate with others to achieve our goals? We use our prior experience or advice from others, or construct a candidate utterance by predicting how it will be received. However, our experiences are limited and biased, and reasoning about potential outcomes can be difficult and cognitively challenging. In this paper, we explore how we can leverage Large Language Model (LLM) simulations to help us communicate better. We propose the Explore-Generate-Simulate (EGS) framework, which takes as input any scenario where an individual is communicating to an audience with a goal they want to achieve. EGS (1) explores the solution space by producing a diverse set of advice relevant to the scenario, (2) generates communication candidates conditioned on subsets of the advice, and (3) simulates the reactions from various audiences to determine both the best candidate and advice to use. We evaluate the framework on eight scenarios spanning the ten fundamental processes of interpersonal communication. For each scenario, we collect a dataset of human evaluations across candidates and baselines, and showcase that our framework's chosen candidate is preferred over popular generation mechanisms including Chain-of-Thought. We also find that audience simulations achieve reasonably high agreement with human raters across 5 of the 8 scenarios. Finally, we demonstrate the generality of our framework by applying it to real-world scenarios described by users on web forums. Through evaluations and demonstrations, we show that EGS enhances the effectiveness and outcomes of goal-oriented communication across a variety of situations, thus opening up new possibilities for the application of large language models in revolutionizing communication and decision-making processes.

* 16 pages (main paper), 7 tables and figures (main) 
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Davidsonian Scene Graph: Improving Reliability in Fine-grained Evaluation for Text-to-Image Generation

Oct 30, 2023
Jaemin Cho, Yushi Hu, Roopal Garg, Peter Anderson, Ranjay Krishna, Jason Baldridge, Mohit Bansal, Jordi Pont-Tuset, Su Wang

Evaluating text-to-image models is notoriously difficult. A strong recent approach for assessing text-image faithfulness is based on QG/A (question generation and answering), which uses pre-trained foundational models to automatically generate a set of questions and answers from the prompt, and output images are scored based on whether these answers extracted with a visual question answering model are consistent with the prompt-based answers. This kind of evaluation is naturally dependent on the quality of the underlying QG and QA models. We identify and address several reliability challenges in existing QG/A work: (a) QG questions should respect the prompt (avoiding hallucinations, duplications, and omissions) and (b) VQA answers should be consistent (not asserting that there is no motorcycle in an image while also claiming the motorcycle is blue). We address these issues with Davidsonian Scene Graph (DSG), an empirically grounded evaluation framework inspired by formal semantics. DSG is an automatic, graph-based QG/A that is modularly implemented to be adaptable to any QG/A module. DSG produces atomic and unique questions organized in dependency graphs, which (i) ensure appropriate semantic coverage and (ii) sidestep inconsistent answers. With extensive experimentation and human evaluation on a range of model configurations (LLM, VQA, and T2I), we empirically demonstrate that DSG addresses the challenges noted above. Finally, we present DSG-1k, an open-sourced evaluation benchmark that includes 1,060 prompts, covering a wide range of fine-grained semantic categories with a balanced distribution. We release the DSG-1k prompts and the corresponding DSG questions.

* Project website: 
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Cultural and Linguistic Diversity Improves Visual Representations

Oct 22, 2023
Andre Ye, Sebastin Santy, Jena D. Hwang, Amy X. Zhang, Ranjay Krishna

Computer vision often treats perception as objective, and this assumption gets reflected in the way that datasets are collected and models are trained. For instance, image descriptions in different languages are typically assumed to be translations of the same semantic content. However, work in cross-cultural psychology and linguistics has shown that individuals differ in their visual perception depending on their cultural background and the language they speak. In this paper, we demonstrate significant differences in semantic content across languages in both dataset and model-produced captions. When data is multilingual as opposed to monolingual, captions have higher semantic coverage on average, as measured by scene graph, embedding, and linguistic complexity. For example, multilingual captions have on average 21.8% more objects, 24.5% more relations, and 27.1% more attributes than a set of monolingual captions. Moreover, models trained on content from different languages perform best against test data from those languages, while those trained on multilingual content perform consistently well across all evaluation data compositions. Our research provides implications for how diverse modes of perception can improve image understanding.

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EcoAssistant: Using LLM Assistant More Affordably and Accurately

Oct 03, 2023
Jieyu Zhang, Ranjay Krishna, Ahmed H. Awadallah, Chi Wang

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Today, users ask Large language models (LLMs) as assistants to answer queries that require external knowledge; they ask about the weather in a specific city, about stock prices, and even about where specific locations are within their neighborhood. These queries require the LLM to produce code that invokes external APIs to answer the user's question, yet LLMs rarely produce correct code on the first try, requiring iterative code refinement upon execution results. In addition, using LLM assistants to support high query volumes can be expensive. In this work, we contribute a framework, EcoAssistant, that enables LLMs to answer code-driven queries more affordably and accurately. EcoAssistant contains three components. First, it allows the LLM assistants to converse with an automatic code executor to iteratively refine code or to produce answers based on the execution results. Second, we use a hierarchy of LLM assistants, which attempts to answer the query with weaker, cheaper LLMs before backing off to stronger, expensive ones. Third, we retrieve solutions from past successful queries as in-context demonstrations to help subsequent queries. Empirically, we show that EcoAssistant offers distinct advantages for affordability and accuracy, surpassing GPT-4 by 10 points of success rate with less than 50% of GPT-4's cost.

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Tool Documentation Enables Zero-Shot Tool-Usage with Large Language Models

Aug 01, 2023
Cheng-Yu Hsieh, Si-An Chen, Chun-Liang Li, Yasuhisa Fujii, Alexander Ratner, Chen-Yu Lee, Ranjay Krishna, Tomas Pfister

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Today, large language models (LLMs) are taught to use new tools by providing a few demonstrations of the tool's usage. Unfortunately, demonstrations are hard to acquire, and can result in undesirable biased usage if the wrong demonstration is chosen. Even in the rare scenario that demonstrations are readily available, there is no principled selection protocol to determine how many and which ones to provide. As tasks grow more complex, the selection search grows combinatorially and invariably becomes intractable. Our work provides an alternative to demonstrations: tool documentation. We advocate the use of tool documentation, descriptions for the individual tool usage, over demonstrations. We substantiate our claim through three main empirical findings on 6 tasks across both vision and language modalities. First, on existing benchmarks, zero-shot prompts with only tool documentation are sufficient for eliciting proper tool usage, achieving performance on par with few-shot prompts. Second, on a newly collected realistic tool-use dataset with hundreds of available tool APIs, we show that tool documentation is significantly more valuable than demonstrations, with zero-shot documentation significantly outperforming few-shot without documentation. Third, we highlight the benefits of tool documentations by tackling image generation and video tracking using just-released unseen state-of-the-art models as tools. Finally, we highlight the possibility of using tool documentation to automatically enable new applications: by using nothing more than the documentation of GroundingDino, Stable Diffusion, XMem, and SAM, LLMs can re-invent the functionalities of the just-released Grounded-SAM and Track Anything models.

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OBJECT 3DIT: Language-guided 3D-aware Image Editing

Jul 20, 2023
Oscar Michel, Anand Bhattad, Eli VanderBilt, Ranjay Krishna, Aniruddha Kembhavi, Tanmay Gupta

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Existing image editing tools, while powerful, typically disregard the underlying 3D geometry from which the image is projected. As a result, edits made using these tools may become detached from the geometry and lighting conditions that are at the foundation of the image formation process. In this work, we formulate the newt ask of language-guided 3D-aware editing, where objects in an image should be edited according to a language instruction in context of the underlying 3D scene. To promote progress towards this goal, we release OBJECT: a dataset consisting of 400K editing examples created from procedurally generated 3D scenes. Each example consists of an input image, editing instruction in language, and the edited image. We also introduce 3DIT : single and multi-task models for four editing tasks. Our models show impressive abilities to understand the 3D composition of entire scenes, factoring in surrounding objects, surfaces, lighting conditions, shadows, and physically-plausible object configurations. Surprisingly, training on only synthetic scenes from OBJECT, editing capabilities of 3DIT generalize to real-world images.

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