We introduce VideoPrism, a general-purpose video encoder that tackles diverse video understanding tasks with a single frozen model. We pretrain VideoPrism on a heterogeneous corpus containing 36M high-quality video-caption pairs and 582M video clips with noisy parallel text (e.g., ASR transcripts). The pretraining approach improves upon masked autoencoding by global-local distillation of semantic video embeddings and a token shuffling scheme, enabling VideoPrism to focus primarily on the video modality while leveraging the invaluable text associated with videos. We extensively test VideoPrism on four broad groups of video understanding tasks, from web video question answering to CV for science, achieving state-of-the-art performance on 30 out of 33 video understanding benchmarks.
The recent advance in vision-language models is largely attributed to the abundance of image-text data. We aim to replicate this success for video-language models, but there simply is not enough human-curated video-text data available. We thus resort to fine-tuning a video-language model from a strong image-language baseline with synthesized instructional data. The resulting video-language model is then used to auto-label millions of videos to generate high-quality captions. We show the adapted video-language model performs well on a wide range of video-language benchmarks. For instance, it surpasses the best prior result on open-ended NExT-QA by 2.8%. Besides, our model generates detailed descriptions for previously unseen videos, which provide better textual supervision than existing methods. Experiments show that a video-language dual-encoder model contrastively trained on these auto-generated captions is 3.8% better than the strongest baseline that also leverages vision-language models. Our best model outperforms state-of-the-art methods on MSR-VTT zero-shot text-to-video retrieval by 6%.
This paper presents instruct-imagen, a model that tackles heterogeneous image generation tasks and generalizes across unseen tasks. We introduce *multi-modal instruction* for image generation, a task representation articulating a range of generation intents with precision. It uses natural language to amalgamate disparate modalities (e.g., text, edge, style, subject, etc.), such that abundant generation intents can be standardized in a uniform format. We then build instruct-imagen by fine-tuning a pre-trained text-to-image diffusion model with a two-stage framework. First, we adapt the model using the retrieval-augmented training, to enhance model's capabilities to ground its generation on external multimodal context. Subsequently, we fine-tune the adapted model on diverse image generation tasks that requires vision-language understanding (e.g., subject-driven generation, etc.), each paired with a multi-modal instruction encapsulating the task's essence. Human evaluation on various image generation datasets reveals that instruct-imagen matches or surpasses prior task-specific models in-domain and demonstrates promising generalization to unseen and more complex tasks.
Recognition and reasoning are two pillars of visual understanding. However, these tasks have an imbalance in focus; whereas recent advances in neural networks have shown strong empirical performance in visual recognition, there has been comparably much less success in solving visual reasoning. Intuitively, unifying these two tasks under a singular framework is desirable, as they are mutually dependent and beneficial. Motivated by the recent success of multi-task transformers for visual recognition and language understanding, we propose a unified neural architecture for visual recognition and reasoning with a generic interface (e.g., tokens) for both. Our framework enables the principled investigation of how different visual recognition tasks, datasets, and inductive biases can help enable spatiotemporal reasoning capabilities. Noticeably, we find that object detection, which requires spatial localization of individual objects, is the most beneficial recognition task for reasoning. We further demonstrate via probing that implicit object-centric representations emerge automatically inside our framework. Intriguingly, we discover that certain architectural choices such as the backbone model of the visual encoder have a significant impact on visual reasoning, but little on object detection. Given the results of our experiments, we believe that visual reasoning should be considered as a first-class citizen alongside visual recognition, as they are strongly correlated but benefit from potentially different design choices.
While Large Language Models (LLMs) are the dominant models for generative tasks in language, they do not perform as well as diffusion models on image and video generation. To effectively use LLMs for visual generation, one crucial component is the visual tokenizer that maps pixel-space inputs to discrete tokens appropriate for LLM learning. In this paper, we introduce MAGVIT-v2, a video tokenizer designed to generate concise and expressive tokens for both videos and images using a common token vocabulary. Equipped with this new tokenizer, we show that LLMs outperform diffusion models on standard image and video generation benchmarks including ImageNet and Kinetics. In addition, we demonstrate that our tokenizer surpasses the previously top-performing video tokenizer on two more tasks: (1) video compression comparable to the next-generation video codec (VCC) according to human evaluations, and (2) learning effective representations for action recognition tasks.
Pre-trained multimodal foundation models have demonstrated remarkable generalizability but pose challenges for deployment due to their large sizes. One effective approach to reducing their sizes is layerwise distillation, wherein small student models are trained to match the hidden representations of large teacher models at each layer. Motivated by our observation that certain architecture components, referred to as modules, contribute more significantly to the student's performance than others, we propose to track the contributions of individual modules by recording the loss decrement after distillation each module and choose the module with a greater contribution to distill more frequently. Such an approach can be naturally formulated as a multi-armed bandit (MAB) problem, where modules and loss decrements are considered as arms and rewards, respectively. We then develop a modified-Thompson sampling algorithm named OPTIMA to address the nonstationarity of module contributions resulting from model updating. Specifically, we leverage the observed contributions in recent history to estimate the changing contribution of each module and select modules based on these estimations to maximize the cumulative contribution. We evaluate the effectiveness of OPTIMA through distillation experiments on various multimodal understanding and image captioning tasks, using the CoCa-Large model (Yu et al., 2022) as the teacher model.
In this paper, we present a novel problem, namely video timeline modeling. Our objective is to create a video-associated timeline from a set of videos related to a specific topic, thereby facilitating the content and structure understanding of the story being told. This problem has significant potential in various real-world applications, such as news story summarization. To bootstrap research in this area, we curate a realistic benchmark dataset, YouTube-News-Timeline, consisting of over $12$k timelines and $300$k YouTube news videos. Additionally, we propose a set of quantitative metrics as the protocol to comprehensively evaluate and compare methodologies. With such a testbed, we further develop and benchmark exploratory deep learning approaches to tackle this problem. We anticipate that this exploratory work will pave the way for further research in video timeline modeling. The assets are available via https://github.com/google-research/google-research/tree/master/video_timeline_modeling.
* Accepted as a spotlight by NeurIPS 2023, Track on Datasets and
Domain adaptation, which aims to transfer knowledge between domains, has been well studied in many areas such as image classification and object detection. However, for multi-modal tasks, conventional approaches rely on large-scale pre-training. But due to the difficulty of acquiring multi-modal data, large-scale pre-training is often impractical. Therefore, domain adaptation, which can efficiently utilize the knowledge from different datasets (domains), is crucial for multi-modal tasks. In this paper, we focus on the Referring Expression Grounding (REG) task, which is to localize an image region described by a natural language expression. Specifically, we propose a novel approach to effectively transfer multi-modal knowledge through a specially relation-tailored approach for the REG problem. Our approach tackles the multi-modal domain adaptation problem by simultaneously enriching inter-domain relations and transferring relations between domains. Experiments show that our proposed approach significantly improves the transferability of multi-modal domains and enhances adaptation performance in the REG problem.
We evaluate existing foundation models video understanding capabilities using a carefully designed experiment protocol consisting of three hallmark tasks (action recognition, temporal localization, and spatiotemporal localization), eight datasets well received by the community, and four adaptation methods tailoring a foundation model (FM) for a downstream task. Moreover, we propose a scalar VideoGLUE score (VGS) to measure an FMs efficacy and efficiency when adapting to general video understanding tasks. Our main findings are as follows. First, task-specialized models significantly outperform the six FMs studied in this work, in sharp contrast to what FMs have achieved in natural language and image understanding. Second,video-native FMs, whose pretraining data contains the video modality, are generally better than image-native FMs in classifying motion-rich videos, localizing actions in time, and understanding a video of more than one action. Third, the video-native FMs can perform well on video tasks under light adaptations to downstream tasks(e.g., freezing the FM backbones), while image-native FMs win in full end-to-end finetuning. The first two observations reveal the need and tremendous opportunities to conduct research on video-focused FMs, and the last confirms that both tasks and adaptation methods matter when it comes to the evaluation of FMs.
Personalized federated learning (PFL) aims to harness the collective wisdom of clients' data to build customized models tailored to individual clients' data distributions. Existing works offer personalization primarily to clients who participate in the FL process, making it hard to encompass new clients who were absent or newly show up. In this paper, we propose FedBasis, a novel PFL framework to tackle such a deficiency. FedBasis learns a set of few, shareable ``basis'' models, which can be linearly combined to form personalized models for clients. Specifically for a new client, only a small set of combination coefficients, not the models, needs to be learned. This notion makes FedBasis more parameter-efficient, robust, and accurate compared to other competitive PFL baselines, especially in the low data regime, without increasing the inference cost. To demonstrate its applicability, we also present a more practical PFL testbed for image classification, featuring larger data discrepancies across clients in both the image and label spaces as well as more faithful training and test splits.