The development of artificial intelligence systems is transitioning from creating static, task-specific models to dynamic, agent-based systems capable of performing well in a wide range of applications. We propose an Interactive Agent Foundation Model that uses a novel multi-task agent training paradigm for training AI agents across a wide range of domains, datasets, and tasks. Our training paradigm unifies diverse pre-training strategies, including visual masked auto-encoders, language modeling, and next-action prediction, enabling a versatile and adaptable AI framework. We demonstrate the performance of our framework across three separate domains -- Robotics, Gaming AI, and Healthcare. Our model demonstrates its ability to generate meaningful and contextually relevant outputs in each area. The strength of our approach lies in its generality, leveraging a variety of data sources such as robotics sequences, gameplay data, large-scale video datasets, and textual information for effective multimodal and multi-task learning. Our approach provides a promising avenue for developing generalist, action-taking, multimodal systems.
Multi-modal AI systems will likely become a ubiquitous presence in our everyday lives. A promising approach to making these systems more interactive is to embody them as agents within physical and virtual environments. At present, systems leverage existing foundation models as the basic building blocks for the creation of embodied agents. Embedding agents within such environments facilitates the ability of models to process and interpret visual and contextual data, which is critical for the creation of more sophisticated and context-aware AI systems. For example, a system that can perceive user actions, human behavior, environmental objects, audio expressions, and the collective sentiment of a scene can be used to inform and direct agent responses within the given environment. To accelerate research on agent-based multimodal intelligence, we define "Agent AI" as a class of interactive systems that can perceive visual stimuli, language inputs, and other environmentally-grounded data, and can produce meaningful embodied action with infinite agent. In particular, we explore systems that aim to improve agents based on next-embodied action prediction by incorporating external knowledge, multi-sensory inputs, and human feedback. We argue that by developing agentic AI systems in grounded environments, one can also mitigate the hallucinations of large foundation models and their tendency to generate environmentally incorrect outputs. The emerging field of Agent AI subsumes the broader embodied and agentic aspects of multimodal interactions. Beyond agents acting and interacting in the physical world, we envision a future where people can easily create any virtual reality or simulated scene and interact with agents embodied within the virtual environment.
Rendering the visual appearance of moving humans from occluded monocular videos is a challenging task. Most existing research renders 3D humans under ideal conditions, requiring a clear and unobstructed scene. Those methods cannot be used to render humans in real-world scenes where obstacles may block the camera's view and lead to partial occlusions. In this work, we present Wild2Avatar, a neural rendering approach catered for occluded in-the-wild monocular videos. We propose occlusion-aware scene parameterization for decoupling the scene into three parts - occlusion, human, and background. Additionally, extensive objective functions are designed to help enforce the decoupling of the human from both the occlusion and the background and to ensure the completeness of the human model. We verify the effectiveness of our approach with experiments on in-the-wild videos.
Learning predictive models from observations using deep neural networks (DNNs) is a promising new approach to many real-world planning and control problems. However, common DNNs are too unstructured for effective planning, and current control methods typically rely on extensive sampling or local gradient descent. In this paper, we propose a new framework for integrated model learning and predictive control that is amenable to efficient optimization algorithms. Specifically, we start with a ReLU neural model of the system dynamics and, with minimal losses in prediction accuracy, we gradually sparsify it by removing redundant neurons. This discrete sparsification process is approximated as a continuous problem, enabling an end-to-end optimization of both the model architecture and the weight parameters. The sparsified model is subsequently used by a mixed-integer predictive controller, which represents the neuron activations as binary variables and employs efficient branch-and-bound algorithms. Our framework is applicable to a wide variety of DNNs, from simple multilayer perceptrons to complex graph neural dynamics. It can efficiently handle tasks involving complicated contact dynamics, such as object pushing, compositional object sorting, and manipulation of deformable objects. Numerical and hardware experiments show that, despite the aggressive sparsification, our framework can deliver better closed-loop performance than existing state-of-the-art methods.
We present W.A.L.T, a transformer-based approach for photorealistic video generation via diffusion modeling. Our approach has two key design decisions. First, we use a causal encoder to jointly compress images and videos within a unified latent space, enabling training and generation across modalities. Second, for memory and training efficiency, we use a window attention architecture tailored for joint spatial and spatiotemporal generative modeling. Taken together these design decisions enable us to achieve state-of-the-art performance on established video (UCF-101 and Kinetics-600) and image (ImageNet) generation benchmarks without using classifier free guidance. Finally, we also train a cascade of three models for the task of text-to-video generation consisting of a base latent video diffusion model, and two video super-resolution diffusion models to generate videos of $512 \times 896$ resolution at $8$ frames per second.
Code provides a general syntactic structure to build complex programs and perform precise computations when paired with a code interpreter - we hypothesize that language models (LMs) can leverage code-writing to improve Chain of Thought reasoning not only for logic and arithmetic tasks, but also for semantic ones (and in particular, those that are a mix of both). For example, consider prompting an LM to write code that counts the number of times it detects sarcasm in an essay: the LM may struggle to write an implementation for "detect_sarcasm(string)" that can be executed by the interpreter (handling the edge cases would be insurmountable). However, LMs may still produce a valid solution if they not only write code, but also selectively "emulate" the interpreter by generating the expected output of "detect_sarcasm(string)" and other lines of code that cannot be executed. In this work, we propose Chain of Code (CoC), a simple yet surprisingly effective extension that improves LM code-driven reasoning. The key idea is to encourage LMs to format semantic sub-tasks in a program as flexible pseudocode that the interpreter can explicitly catch undefined behaviors and hand off to simulate with an LM (as an "LMulator"). Experiments demonstrate that Chain of Code outperforms Chain of Thought and other baselines across a variety of benchmarks; on BIG-Bench Hard, Chain of Code achieves 84%, a gain of 12% over Chain of Thought. CoC scales well with large and small models alike, and broadens the scope of reasoning questions that LMs can correctly answer by "thinking in code". Project webpage: https://chain-of-code.github.io.
The stunning qualitative improvement of recent text-to-image models has led to their widespread attention and adoption. However, we lack a comprehensive quantitative understanding of their capabilities and risks. To fill this gap, we introduce a new benchmark, Holistic Evaluation of Text-to-Image Models (HEIM). Whereas previous evaluations focus mostly on text-image alignment and image quality, we identify 12 aspects, including text-image alignment, image quality, aesthetics, originality, reasoning, knowledge, bias, toxicity, fairness, robustness, multilinguality, and efficiency. We curate 62 scenarios encompassing these aspects and evaluate 26 state-of-the-art text-to-image models on this benchmark. Our results reveal that no single model excels in all aspects, with different models demonstrating different strengths. We release the generated images and human evaluation results for full transparency at https://crfm.stanford.edu/heim/v1.1.0 and the code at https://github.com/stanford-crfm/helm, which is integrated with the HELM codebase.
* NeurIPS 2023. First three authors contributed equally
We present Neural Signal Operated Intelligent Robots (NOIR), a general-purpose, intelligent brain-robot interface system that enables humans to command robots to perform everyday activities through brain signals. Through this interface, humans communicate their intended objects of interest and actions to the robots using electroencephalography (EEG). Our novel system demonstrates success in an expansive array of 20 challenging, everyday household activities, including cooking, cleaning, personal care, and entertainment. The effectiveness of the system is improved by its synergistic integration of robot learning algorithms, allowing for NOIR to adapt to individual users and predict their intentions. Our work enhances the way humans interact with robots, replacing traditional channels of interaction with direct, neural communication. Project website: https://noir-corl.github.io/.
We introduce a 3D-aware diffusion model, ZeroNVS, for single-image novel view synthesis for in-the-wild scenes. While existing methods are designed for single objects with masked backgrounds, we propose new techniques to address challenges introduced by in-the-wild multi-object scenes with complex backgrounds. Specifically, we train a generative prior on a mixture of data sources that capture object-centric, indoor, and outdoor scenes. To address issues from data mixture such as depth-scale ambiguity, we propose a novel camera conditioning parameterization and normalization scheme. Further, we observe that Score Distillation Sampling (SDS) tends to truncate the distribution of complex backgrounds during distillation of 360-degree scenes, and propose "SDS anchoring" to improve the diversity of synthesized novel views. Our model sets a new state-of-the-art result in LPIPS on the DTU dataset in the zero-shot setting, even outperforming methods specifically trained on DTU. We further adapt the challenging Mip-NeRF 360 dataset as a new benchmark for single-image novel view synthesis, and demonstrate strong performance in this setting. Our code and data are at http://kylesargent.github.io/zeronvs/
Scene representation has been a crucial design choice in robotic manipulation systems. An ideal representation should be 3D, dynamic, and semantic to meet the demands of diverse manipulation tasks. However, previous works often lack all three properties simultaneously. In this work, we introduce D$^3$Fields - dynamic 3D descriptor fields. These fields capture the dynamics of the underlying 3D environment and encode both semantic features and instance masks. Specifically, we project arbitrary 3D points in the workspace onto multi-view 2D visual observations and interpolate features derived from foundational models. The resulting fused descriptor fields allow for flexible goal specifications using 2D images with varied contexts, styles, and instances. To evaluate the effectiveness of these descriptor fields, we apply our representation to a wide range of robotic manipulation tasks in a zero-shot manner. Through extensive evaluation in both real-world scenarios and simulations, we demonstrate that D$^3$Fields are both generalizable and effective for zero-shot robotic manipulation tasks. In quantitative comparisons with state-of-the-art dense descriptors, such as Dense Object Nets and DINO, D$^3$Fields exhibit significantly better generalization abilities and manipulation accuracy.