Optimizing various wireless user tasks poses a significant challenge for networking systems because of the expanding range of user requirements. Despite advancements in Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL), the need for customized optimization tasks for individual users complicates developing and applying numerous DRL models, leading to substantial computation resource and energy consumption and can lead to inconsistent outcomes. To address this issue, we propose a novel approach utilizing a Mixture of Experts (MoE) framework, augmented with Large Language Models (LLMs), to analyze user objectives and constraints effectively, select specialized DRL experts, and weigh each decision from the participating experts. Specifically, we develop a gate network to oversee the expert models, allowing a collective of experts to tackle a wide array of new tasks. Furthermore, we innovatively substitute the traditional gate network with an LLM, leveraging its advanced reasoning capabilities to manage expert model selection for joint decisions. Our proposed method reduces the need to train new DRL models for each unique optimization problem, decreasing energy consumption and AI model implementation costs. The LLM-enabled MoE approach is validated through a general maze navigation task and a specific network service provider utility maximization task, demonstrating its effectiveness and practical applicability in optimizing complex networking systems.
Constructing earth-fixed cells with low-earth orbit (LEO) satellites in non-terrestrial networks (NTNs) has been the most promising paradigm to enable global coverage. The limited computing capabilities on LEO satellites however render tackling resource optimization within a short duration a critical challenge. Although the sufficient computing capabilities of the ground infrastructures can be utilized to assist the LEO satellite, different time-scale control cycles and coupling decisions between the space- and ground-segments still obstruct the joint optimization design for computing agents at different segments. To address the above challenges, in this paper, a multi-time-scale deep reinforcement learning (DRL) scheme is developed for achieving the radio resource optimization in NTNs, in which the LEO satellite and user equipment (UE) collaborate with each other to perform individual decision-making tasks with different control cycles. Specifically, the UE updates its policy toward improving value functions of both the satellite and UE, while the LEO satellite only performs finite-step rollout for decision-makings based on the reference decision trajectory provided by the UE. Most importantly, rigorous analysis to guarantee the performance convergence of the proposed scheme is provided. Comprehensive simulations are conducted to justify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in balancing the transmission performance and computational complexity.
Deep reinforcement learning (DRL) has shown remarkable success in complex autonomous driving scenarios. However, DRL models inevitably bring high memory consumption and computation, which hinders their wide deployment in resource-limited autonomous driving devices. Structured Pruning has been recognized as a useful method to compress and accelerate DRL models, but it is still challenging to estimate the contribution of a parameter (i.e., neuron) to DRL models. In this paper, we introduce a novel dynamic structured pruning approach that gradually removes a DRL model's unimportant neurons during the training stage. Our method consists of two steps, i.e. training DRL models with a group sparse regularizer and removing unimportant neurons with a dynamic pruning threshold. To efficiently train the DRL model with a small number of important neurons, we employ a neuron-importance group sparse regularizer. In contrast to conventional regularizers, this regularizer imposes a penalty on redundant groups of neurons that do not significantly influence the output of the DRL model. Furthermore, we design a novel structured pruning strategy to dynamically determine the pruning threshold and gradually remove unimportant neurons with a binary mask. Therefore, our method can remove not only redundant groups of neurons of the DRL model but also achieve high and robust performance. Experimental results show that the proposed method is competitive with existing DRL pruning methods on discrete control environments (i.e., CartPole-v1 and LunarLander-v2) and MuJoCo continuous environments (i.e., Hopper-v3 and Walker2D-v3). Specifically, our method effectively compresses $93\%$ neurons and $96\%$ weights of the DRL model in four challenging DRL environments with slight accuracy degradation.
Non-terrestrial networks (NTNs) with low-earth orbit (LEO) satellites have been regarded as promising remedies to support global ubiquitous wireless services. Due to the rapid mobility of LEO satellite, inter-beam/satellite handovers happen frequently for a specific user equipment (UE). To tackle this issue, earth-fixed cell scenarios have been under studied, in which the LEO satellite adjusts its beam direction towards a fixed area within its dwell duration, to maintain stable transmission performance for the UE. Therefore, it is required that the LEO satellite performs real-time resource allocation, which however is unaffordable by the LEO satellite with limited computing capability. To address this issue, in this paper, we propose a two-time-scale collaborative deep reinforcement learning (DRL) scheme for beam management and resource allocation in NTNs, in which LEO satellite and UE with different control cycles update their decision-making policies through a sequential manner. Specifically, UE updates its policy subject to improving the value functions of both the agents. Furthermore, the LEO satellite only makes decisions through finite-step rollouts with a reference decision trajectory received from the UE. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can effectively balance the throughput performance and computational complexity over traditional greedy-searching schemes.
Federated Learning (FL) is a privacy-preserving distributed learning approach that is rapidly developing in an era where privacy protection is increasingly valued. It is this rapid development trend, along with the continuous emergence of new demands for FL in the real world, that prompts us to focus on a very important problem: Federated Learning with New Knowledge. The primary challenge here is to effectively incorporate various new knowledge into existing FL systems and evolve these systems to reduce costs, extend their lifespan, and facilitate sustainable development. In this paper, we systematically define the main sources of new knowledge in FL, including new features, tasks, models, and algorithms. For each source, we thoroughly analyze and discuss how to incorporate new knowledge into existing FL systems and examine the impact of the form and timing of new knowledge arrival on the incorporation process. Furthermore, we comprehensively discuss the potential future directions for FL with new knowledge, considering a variety of factors such as scenario setups, efficiency, and security. There is also a continuously updating repository for this topic: https://github.com/conditionWang/FLNK.
Federated unlearning has emerged as a promising paradigm to erase the client-level data effect without affecting the performance of collaborative learning models. However, the federated unlearning process often introduces extensive storage overhead and consumes substantial computational resources, thus hindering its implementation in practice. To address this issue, this paper proposes a scalable federated unlearning framework based on isolated sharding and coded computing. We first divide distributed clients into multiple isolated shards across stages to reduce the number of clients being affected. Then, to reduce the storage overhead of the central server, we develop a coded computing mechanism by compressing the model parameters across different shards. In addition, we provide the theoretical analysis of time efficiency and storage effectiveness for the isolated and coded sharding. Finally, extensive experiments on two typical learning tasks, i.e., classification and generation, demonstrate that our proposed framework can achieve better performance than three state-of-the-art frameworks in terms of accuracy, retraining time, storage overhead, and F1 scores for resisting membership inference attacks.
Federated unlearning is a promising paradigm for protecting the data ownership of distributed clients. It allows central servers to remove historical data effects within the machine learning model as well as address the "right to be forgotten" issue in federated learning. However, existing works require central servers to retain the historical model parameters from distributed clients, such that allows the central server to utilize these parameters for further training even, after the clients exit the training process. To address this issue, this paper proposes a new blockchain-enabled trustworthy federated unlearning framework. We first design a proof of federated unlearning protocol, which utilizes the Chameleon hash function to verify data removal and eliminate the data contributions stored in other clients' models. Then, an adaptive contribution-based retraining mechanism is developed to reduce the computational overhead and significantly improve the training efficiency. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed framework can achieve a better data removal effect than the state-of-the-art frameworks, marking a significant stride towards trustworthy federated unlearning.
Generative Artificial Intelligence (GAI) has recently emerged as a promising solution to address critical challenges of blockchain technology, including scalability, security, privacy, and interoperability. In this paper, we first introduce GAI techniques, outline their applications, and discuss existing solutions for integrating GAI into blockchains. Then, we discuss emerging solutions that demonstrate the effectiveness of GAI in addressing various challenges of blockchain, such as detecting unknown blockchain attacks and smart contract vulnerabilities, designing key secret sharing schemes, and enhancing privacy. Moreover, we present a case study to demonstrate that GAI, specifically the generative diffusion model, can be employed to optimize blockchain network performance metrics. Experimental results clearly show that, compared to a baseline traditional AI approach, the proposed generative diffusion model approach can converge faster, achieve higher rewards, and significantly improve the throughput and latency of the blockchain network. Additionally, we highlight future research directions for GAI in blockchain applications, including personalized GAI-enabled blockchains, GAI-blockchain synergy, and privacy and security considerations within blockchain ecosystems.
In this paper, we develop an effective degrees of freedom (EDoF) performance analysis framework specifically tailored for near-field XL-MIMO systems. We explore five representative distinct XL-MIMO hardware designs, including uniform planar array (UPA)-based with point antennas, two-dimensional (2D) continuous aperture (CAP) plane-based, UPA-based with patch antennas, uniform linear array (ULA)-based, and one-dimensional (1D) CAP line segment-based XL-MIMO systems. Our analysis encompasses two near-field channel models: the scalar and dyadic Green's function-based channel models. More importantly, when applying the scalar Green's function-based channel, we derive EDoF expressions in the closed-form, characterizing the impacts of the physical size of the transceiver, the transmitting distance, and the carrier frequency. In our numerical results, we evaluate and compare the EDoF performance across all examined XL-MIMO designs, confirming the accuracy of our proposed closed-form expressions. Furthermore, we observe that with an increasing number of antennas, the EDoF performance for both UPA-based and ULA-based systems approaches that of 2D CAP plane and 1D CAP line segment-based systems, respectively. Moreover, we unveil that the EDoF performance for near-field XL-MIMO systems is predominantly determined by the array aperture size rather than the sheer number of antennas.
* 32 pages, 11 figures. This paper has been submitted to IEEE journal
for possible publication
The Internet of things (IoT) can significantly enhance the quality of human life, specifically in healthcare, attracting extensive attentions to IoT-healthcare services. Meanwhile, the human digital twin (HDT) is proposed as an innovative paradigm that can comprehensively characterize the replication of the individual human body in the digital world and reflect its physical status in real time. Naturally, HDT is envisioned to empower IoT-healthcare beyond the application of healthcare monitoring by acting as a versatile and vivid human digital testbed, simulating the outcomes and guiding the practical treatments. However, successfully establishing HDT requires high-fidelity virtual modeling and strong information interactions but possibly with scarce, biased and noisy data. Fortunately, a recent popular technology called generative artificial intelligence (GAI) may be a promising solution because it can leverage advanced AI algorithms to automatically create, manipulate, and modify valuable while diverse data. This survey particularly focuses on the implementation of GAI-driven HDT in IoT-healthcare. We start by introducing the background of IoT-healthcare and the potential of GAI-driven HDT. Then, we delve into the fundamental techniques and present the overall framework of GAI-driven HDT. After that, we explore the realization of GAI-driven HDT in detail, including GAI-enabled data acquisition, communication, data management, digital modeling, and data analysis. Besides, we discuss typical IoT-healthcare applications that can be revolutionized by GAI-driven HDT, namely personalized health monitoring and diagnosis, personalized prescription, and personalized rehabilitation. Finally, we conclude this survey by highlighting some future research directions.