Human-centered AI (HCAI), as a design philosophy, advocates prioritizing humans in designing, developing, and deploying intelligent systems, aiming to maximize the benefits of AI technology to humans and avoid its potential adverse effects. While HCAI has gained momentum, the lack of guidance on methodology in its implementation makes its adoption challenging. After assessing the needs for a methodological framework for HCAI, this paper first proposes a comprehensive and interdisciplinary HCAI methodological framework integrated with seven components, including design goals, design principles, implementation approaches, design paradigms, interdisciplinary teams, methods, and processes. THe implications of the framework are also discussed. This paper also presents a "three-layer" approach to facilitate the implementation of the framework. We believe the proposed framework is systematic and executable, which can overcome the weaknesses in current frameworks and the challenges currently faced in implementing HCAI. Thus, the framework can help put it into action to develop, transfer, and implement HCAI in practice, eventually enabling the design, development, and deployment of HCAI-based intelligent systems.
Digital twin, which enables emulation, evaluation, and optimization of physical entities through synchronized digital replicas, has gained increasingly attention as a promising technology for intricate wireless networks. For 6G, numerous innovative wireless technologies and network architectures have posed new challenges in establishing wireless network digital twins. To tackle these challenges, artificial intelligence (AI), particularly the flourishing generative AI, emerges as a potential solution. In this article, we discuss emerging prerequisites for wireless network digital twins considering the complicated network architecture, tremendous network scale, extensive coverage, and diversified application scenarios in the 6G era. We further explore the applications of generative AI, such as transformer and diffusion model, to empower the 6G digital twin from multiple perspectives including implementation, physical-digital synchronization, and slicing capability. Subsequently, we propose a hierarchical generative AI-enabled wireless network digital twin at both the message-level and policy-level, and provide a typical use case with numerical results to validate the effectiveness and efficiency. Finally, open research issues for wireless network digital twins in the 6G era are discussed.
The significant progress of large language models (LLMs) provides a promising opportunity to build human-like systems for various practical applications. However, when applied to specific task domains, an LLM pre-trained on a general-purpose corpus may exhibit a deficit or inadequacy in two types of domain-specific knowledge. One is a comprehensive set of domain data that is typically large-scale and continuously evolving. The other is specific working patterns of this domain reflected in the data. The absence or inadequacy of such knowledge impacts the performance of the LLM. In this paper, we propose a general paradigm that augments LLMs with DOmain-specific KnowledgE to enhance their performance on practical applications, namely DOKE. This paradigm relies on a domain knowledge extractor, working in three steps: 1) preparing effective knowledge for the task; 2) selecting the knowledge for each specific sample; and 3) expressing the knowledge in an LLM-understandable way. Then, the extracted knowledge is incorporated through prompts, without any computational cost of model fine-tuning. We instantiate the general paradigm on a widespread application, i.e. recommender systems, where critical item attributes and collaborative filtering signals are incorporated. Experimental results demonstrate that DOKE can substantially improve the performance of LLMs in specific domains.
Self-disclosure, while being common and rewarding in social media interaction, also poses privacy risks. In this paper, we take the initiative to protect the user-side privacy associated with online self-disclosure through identification and abstraction. We develop a taxonomy of 19 self-disclosure categories, and curate a large corpus consisting of 4.8K annotated disclosure spans. We then fine-tune a language model for identification, achieving over 75% in Token F$_1$. We further conduct a HCI user study, with 82\% of participants viewing the model positively, highlighting its real world applicability. Motivated by the user feedback, we introduce the task of self-disclosure abstraction. We experiment with both one-span abstraction and three-span abstraction settings, and explore multiple fine-tuning strategies. Our best model can generate diverse abstractions that moderately reduce privacy risks while maintaining high utility according to human evaluation.
Human-centered AI (HCAI) is a design philosophy that advocates prioritizing humans in designing, developing, and deploying intelligent systems, aiming to maximize the benefits of AI to humans and avoid potential adverse impacts. While HCAI continues to influence, the lack of guidance on methodology in practice makes its adoption challenging. This paper proposes a comprehensive HCAI framework based on our previous work with integrated components, including design goals, design principles, implementation approaches, interdisciplinary teams, HCAI methods, and HCAI processes. This paper also presents a "three-layer" approach to facilitate the implementation of the framework. We believe this systematic and executable framework can overcome the weaknesses in current HCAI frameworks and the challenges currently faced in practice, putting it into action to enable HCAI further.
Learning on tabular data underpins numerous real-world applications. Despite considerable efforts in developing effective learning models for tabular data, current transferable tabular models remain in their infancy, limited by either the lack of support for direct instruction following in new tasks or the neglect of acquiring foundational knowledge and capabilities from diverse tabular datasets. In this paper, we propose Tabular Foundation Models (TabFMs) to overcome these limitations. TabFMs harness the potential of generative tabular learning, employing a pre-trained large language model (LLM) as the base model and fine-tuning it using purpose-designed objectives on an extensive range of tabular datasets. This approach endows TabFMs with a profound understanding and universal capabilities essential for learning on tabular data. Our evaluations underscore TabFM's effectiveness: not only does it significantly excel in instruction-following tasks like zero-shot and in-context inference, but it also showcases performance that approaches, and in instances, even transcends, the renowned yet mysterious closed-source LLMs like GPT-4. Furthermore, when fine-tuning with scarce data, our model achieves remarkable efficiency and maintains competitive performance with abundant training data. Finally, while our results are promising, we also delve into TabFM's limitations and potential opportunities, aiming to stimulate and expedite future research on developing more potent TabFMs.
Battery life prediction holds significant practical value for battery research and development. Currently, many data-driven models rely on early electrical signals from specific target batteries to predict their lifespan. A common shortfall is that most existing methods are developed based on specific aging conditions, which not only limits their model's capability but also diminishes their effectiveness in predicting degradation under varied conditions. As a result, these models often miss out on fully benefiting from the rich historical data available under other conditions. Here, to address above, we introduce an approach that explicitly captures differences between electrical signals of a target battery and a reference battery, irrespective of their materials and aging conditions, to forecast the target battery life. Through this inter-cell difference, we not only enhance the feature space but also pave the way for a universal battery life prediction framework. Remarkably, our model that combines the inter- and intra-cell differences shines across diverse conditions, standing out in its efficiency and accuracy using all accessible datasets. An essential application of our approach is its capability to leverage data from older batteries effectively, enabling newer batteries to capitalize on insights gained from past batteries. This work not only enriches the battery data utilization strategy but also sets the stage for smarter battery management system in the future.
The proliferation of diverse network services in 5G and beyond networks has led to the emergence of network slicing technologies. Among these, admission control plays a crucial role in achieving specific optimization goals through the selective acceptance of service requests. Although Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) forms the foundation in many admission control approaches for its effectiveness and flexibility, the initial instability of DRL models hinders their practical deployment in real-world networks. In this work, we propose a digital twin (DT) assisted DRL solution to address this issue. Specifically, we first formulate the admission decision-making process as a semi-Markov decision process, which is subsequently simplified into an equivalent discrete-time Markov decision process to facilitate the implementation of DRL methods. The DT is established through supervised learning and employed to assist the training phase of the DRL model. Extensive simulations show that the DT-assisted DRL model increased resource utilization by over 40\% compared to the directly trained state-of-the-art Dueling-DQN and over 20\% compared to our directly trained DRL model during initial training. This improvement is achieved while preserving the model's capacity to optimize the long-term rewards.