With recent advances in artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics, unmanned vehicle swarms have received great attention from both academia and industry due to their potential to provide services that are difficult and dangerous to perform by humans. However, learning and coordinating movements and actions for a large number of unmanned vehicles in complex and dynamic environments introduce significant challenges to conventional AI methods. Generative AI (GAI), with its capabilities in complex data feature extraction, transformation, and enhancement, offers great potential in solving these challenges of unmanned vehicle swarms. For that, this paper aims to provide a comprehensive survey on applications, challenges, and opportunities of GAI in unmanned vehicle swarms. Specifically, we first present an overview of unmanned vehicles and unmanned vehicle swarms as well as their use cases and existing issues. Then, an in-depth background of various GAI techniques together with their capabilities in enhancing unmanned vehicle swarms are provided. After that, we present a comprehensive review on the applications and challenges of GAI in unmanned vehicle swarms with various insights and discussions. Finally, we highlight open issues of GAI in unmanned vehicle swarms and discuss potential research directions.
Optimizing various wireless user tasks poses a significant challenge for networking systems because of the expanding range of user requirements. Despite advancements in Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL), the need for customized optimization tasks for individual users complicates developing and applying numerous DRL models, leading to substantial computation resource and energy consumption and can lead to inconsistent outcomes. To address this issue, we propose a novel approach utilizing a Mixture of Experts (MoE) framework, augmented with Large Language Models (LLMs), to analyze user objectives and constraints effectively, select specialized DRL experts, and weigh each decision from the participating experts. Specifically, we develop a gate network to oversee the expert models, allowing a collective of experts to tackle a wide array of new tasks. Furthermore, we innovatively substitute the traditional gate network with an LLM, leveraging its advanced reasoning capabilities to manage expert model selection for joint decisions. Our proposed method reduces the need to train new DRL models for each unique optimization problem, decreasing energy consumption and AI model implementation costs. The LLM-enabled MoE approach is validated through a general maze navigation task and a specific network service provider utility maximization task, demonstrating its effectiveness and practical applicability in optimizing complex networking systems.
Deep reinforcement learning (DRL) has shown remarkable success in complex autonomous driving scenarios. However, DRL models inevitably bring high memory consumption and computation, which hinders their wide deployment in resource-limited autonomous driving devices. Structured Pruning has been recognized as a useful method to compress and accelerate DRL models, but it is still challenging to estimate the contribution of a parameter (i.e., neuron) to DRL models. In this paper, we introduce a novel dynamic structured pruning approach that gradually removes a DRL model's unimportant neurons during the training stage. Our method consists of two steps, i.e. training DRL models with a group sparse regularizer and removing unimportant neurons with a dynamic pruning threshold. To efficiently train the DRL model with a small number of important neurons, we employ a neuron-importance group sparse regularizer. In contrast to conventional regularizers, this regularizer imposes a penalty on redundant groups of neurons that do not significantly influence the output of the DRL model. Furthermore, we design a novel structured pruning strategy to dynamically determine the pruning threshold and gradually remove unimportant neurons with a binary mask. Therefore, our method can remove not only redundant groups of neurons of the DRL model but also achieve high and robust performance. Experimental results show that the proposed method is competitive with existing DRL pruning methods on discrete control environments (i.e., CartPole-v1 and LunarLander-v2) and MuJoCo continuous environments (i.e., Hopper-v3 and Walker2D-v3). Specifically, our method effectively compresses $93\%$ neurons and $96\%$ weights of the DRL model in four challenging DRL environments with slight accuracy degradation.
The Internet of things (IoT) can significantly enhance the quality of human life, specifically in healthcare, attracting extensive attentions to IoT-healthcare services. Meanwhile, the human digital twin (HDT) is proposed as an innovative paradigm that can comprehensively characterize the replication of the individual human body in the digital world and reflect its physical status in real time. Naturally, HDT is envisioned to empower IoT-healthcare beyond the application of healthcare monitoring by acting as a versatile and vivid human digital testbed, simulating the outcomes and guiding the practical treatments. However, successfully establishing HDT requires high-fidelity virtual modeling and strong information interactions but possibly with scarce, biased and noisy data. Fortunately, a recent popular technology called generative artificial intelligence (GAI) may be a promising solution because it can leverage advanced AI algorithms to automatically create, manipulate, and modify valuable while diverse data. This survey particularly focuses on the implementation of GAI-driven HDT in IoT-healthcare. We start by introducing the background of IoT-healthcare and the potential of GAI-driven HDT. Then, we delve into the fundamental techniques and present the overall framework of GAI-driven HDT. After that, we explore the realization of GAI-driven HDT in detail, including GAI-enabled data acquisition, communication, data management, digital modeling, and data analysis. Besides, we discuss typical IoT-healthcare applications that can be revolutionized by GAI-driven HDT, namely personalized health monitoring and diagnosis, personalized prescription, and personalized rehabilitation. Finally, we conclude this survey by highlighting some future research directions.
The synergy between Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and metaverses is giving rise to an emerging paradigm named UAV metaverses, which create a unified ecosystem that blends physical and virtual spaces, transforming drone interaction and virtual exploration. UAV Twins (UTs), as the digital twins of UAVs that revolutionize UAV applications by making them more immersive, realistic, and informative, are deployed and updated on ground base stations, e.g., RoadSide Units (RSUs), to offer metaverse services for UAV Metaverse Users (UMUs). Due to the dynamic mobility of UAVs and limited communication coverages of RSUs, it is essential to perform real-time UT migration to ensure seamless immersive experiences for UMUs. However, selecting appropriate RSUs and optimizing the required bandwidth is challenging for achieving reliable and efficient UT migration. To address the challenges, we propose a tiny machine learning-based Stackelberg game framework based on pruning techniques for efficient UT migration in UAV metaverses. Specifically, we formulate a multi-leader multi-follower Stackelberg model considering a new immersion metric of UMUs in the utilities of UAVs. Then, we design a Tiny Multi-Agent Deep Reinforcement Learning (Tiny MADRL) algorithm to obtain the tiny networks representing the optimal game solution. Specifically, the actor-critic network leverages the pruning techniques to reduce the number of network parameters and achieve model size and computation reduction, allowing for efficient implementation of Tiny MADRL. Numerical results demonstrate that our proposed schemes have better performance than traditional schemes.
AI agents based on multimodal large language models (LLMs) are expected to revolutionize human-computer interaction and offer more personalized assistant services across various domains like healthcare, education, manufacturing, and entertainment. Deploying LLM agents in 6G networks enables users to access previously expensive AI assistant services via mobile devices democratically, thereby reducing interaction latency and better preserving user privacy. Nevertheless, the limited capacity of mobile devices constrains the effectiveness of deploying and executing local LLMs, which necessitates offloading complex tasks to global LLMs running on edge servers during long-horizon interactions. In this article, we propose a split learning system for LLM agents in 6G networks leveraging the collaboration between mobile devices and edge servers, where multiple LLMs with different roles are distributed across mobile devices and edge servers to perform user-agent interactive tasks collaboratively. In the proposed system, LLM agents are split into perception, grounding, and alignment modules, facilitating inter-module communications to meet extended user requirements on 6G network functions, including integrated sensing and communication, digital twins, and task-oriented communications. Furthermore, we introduce a novel model caching algorithm for LLMs within the proposed system to improve model utilization in context, thus reducing network costs of the collaborative mobile and edge LLM agents.
Quantum computing networks enable scalable collaboration and secure information exchange among multiple classical and quantum computing nodes while executing large-scale generative AI computation tasks and advanced quantum algorithms. Quantum computing networks overcome limitations such as the number of qubits and coherence time of entangled pairs and offer advantages for generative AI infrastructure, including enhanced noise reduction through distributed processing and improved scalability by connecting multiple quantum devices. However, efficient resource allocation in quantum computing networks is a critical challenge due to factors including qubit variability and network complexity. In this article, we propose an intelligent resource allocation framework for quantum computing networks to improve network scalability with minimized resource costs. To achieve scalability in quantum computing networks, we formulate the resource allocation problem as stochastic programming, accounting for the uncertain fidelities of qubits and entangled pairs. Furthermore, we introduce state-of-the-art reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms, from generative learning to quantum machine learning for optimal quantum resource allocation to resolve the proposed stochastic resource allocation problem efficiently. Finally, we optimize the resource allocation in heterogeneous quantum computing networks supporting quantum generative learning applications and propose a multi-agent RL-based algorithm to learn the optimal resource allocation policies without prior knowledge.
End-to-end multi-talker speech recognition has garnered great interest as an effective approach to directly transcribe overlapped speech from multiple speakers. Current methods typically adopt either 1) single-input multiple-output (SIMO) models with a branched encoder, or 2) single-input single-output (SISO) models based on attention-based encoder-decoder architecture with serialized output training (SOT). In this work, we propose a Cross-Speaker Encoding (CSE) network to address the limitations of SIMO models by aggregating cross-speaker representations. Furthermore, the CSE model is integrated with SOT to leverage both the advantages of SIMO and SISO while mitigating their drawbacks. To the best of our knowledge, this work represents an early effort to integrate SIMO and SISO for multi-talker speech recognition. Experiments on the two-speaker LibrispeechMix dataset show that the CES model reduces word error rate (WER) by 8% over the SIMO baseline. The CSE-SOT model reduces WER by 10% overall and by 16% on high-overlap speech compared to the SOT model.
Generative artificial intelligence (GAI) has emerged as a rapidly burgeoning field demonstrating significant potential in creating diverse contents intelligently and automatically. To support such artificial intelligence-generated content (AIGC) services, future communication systems should fulfill much more stringent requirements (including data rate, throughput, latency, etc.) with limited yet precious spectrum resources. To tackle this challenge, semantic communication (SemCom), dramatically reducing resource consumption via extracting and transmitting semantics, has been deemed as a revolutionary communication scheme. The advanced GAI algorithms facilitate SemCom on sophisticated intelligence for model training, knowledge base construction and channel adaption. Furthermore, GAI algorithms also play an important role in the management of SemCom networks. In this survey, we first overview the basics of GAI and SemCom as well as the synergies of the two technologies. Especially, the GAI-driven SemCom framework is presented, where many GAI models for information creation, SemCom-enabled information transmission and information effectiveness for AIGC are discussed separately. We then delve into the GAI-driven SemCom network management involving with novel management layers, knowledge management, and resource allocation. Finally, we envision several promising use cases, i.e., autonomous driving, smart city, and the Metaverse for a more comprehensive exploration.
As indoor applications grow in diversity, wireless sensing, vital in areas like localization and activity recognition, is attracting renewed interest. Indoor wireless sensing relies on signal processing, particularly channel state information (CSI) based signal parameter estimation. Nonetheless, regarding reflected signals induced by dynamic human targets, no satisfactory algorithm yet exists for estimating the acceleration of dynamic path length change (DPLC), which is crucial for various sensing tasks in this context. Hence, this paper proposes DP-AcE, a CSI-based DPLC acceleration estimation algorithm. We first model the relationship between the phase difference of adjacent CSI measurements and the DPLC's acceleration. Unlike existing works assuming constant velocity, DP-AcE considers both velocity and acceleration, yielding a more accurate and objective representation. Using this relationship, an algorithm combining scaling with Fourier transform is proposed to realize acceleration estimation. We evaluate DP-AcE via the acceleration estimation and acceleration-based fall detection with the collected CSI. Experimental results reveal that, using distance as the metric, DP-AcE achieves a median acceleration estimation percentage error of 4.38%. Furthermore, in multi-target scenarios, the fall detection achieves an average true positive rate of 89.56% and a false positive rate of 11.78%, demonstrating its importance in enhancing indoor wireless sensing capabilities.