With the significant advancements in artificial intelligence (AI) technologies and powerful computational capabilities, generative AI (GAI) has become a pivotal digital content generation technique for offering superior digital services. However, directing GAI towards desired outputs still suffer the inherent instability of the AI model. In this paper, we design a novel framework that utilizes wireless perception to guide GAI (WiPe-GAI) for providing digital content generation service, i.e., AI-generated content (AIGC), in resource-constrained mobile edge networks. Specifically, we first propose a new sequential multi-scale perception (SMSP) algorithm to predict user skeleton based on the channel state information (CSI) extracted from wireless signals. This prediction then guides GAI to provide users with AIGC, such as virtual character generation. To ensure the efficient operation of the proposed framework in resource constrained networks, we further design a pricing-based incentive mechanism and introduce a diffusion model based approach to generate an optimal pricing strategy for the service provisioning. The strategy maximizes the user's utility while enhancing the participation of the virtual service provider (VSP) in AIGC provision. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the designed framework in terms of skeleton prediction and optimal pricing strategy generation comparing with other existing solutions.
Deep models suffer from limited generalization capability to unseen domains, which has severely hindered their clinical applicability. Specifically for the retinal vessel segmentation task, although the model is supposed to learn the anatomy of the target, it can be distracted by confounding factors like intensity and contrast. We propose Meta learning on Anatomy-consistent Pseudo-modalities (MAP), a method that improves model generalizability by learning structural features. We first leverage a feature extraction network to generate three distinct pseudo-modalities that share the vessel structure of the original image. Next, we use the episodic learning paradigm by selecting one of the pseudo-modalities as the meta-train dataset, and perform meta-testing on a continuous augmented image space generated through Dirichlet mixup of the remaining pseudo-modalities. Further, we introduce two loss functions that facilitate the model's focus on shape information by clustering the latent vectors obtained from images featuring identical vasculature. We evaluate our model on seven public datasets of various retinal imaging modalities and we conclude that MAP has substantially better generalizability. Our code is publically available at https://github.com/DeweiHu/MAP.
Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have exhibited strong performance in medical image segmentation tasks by capturing high-level (local) information, such as edges and textures. However, due to the limited field of view of convolution kernel, it is hard for CNNs to fully represent global information. Recently, transformers have shown good performance for medical image segmentation due to their ability to better model long-range dependencies. Nevertheless, transformers struggle to capture high-level spatial features as effectively as CNNs. A good segmentation model should learn a better representation from local and global features to be both precise and semantically accurate. In our previous work, we proposed CATS, which is a U-shaped segmentation network augmented with transformer encoder. In this work, we further extend this model and propose CATS v2 with hybrid encoders. Specifically, hybrid encoders consist of a CNN-based encoder path paralleled to a transformer path with a shifted window, which better leverage both local and global information to produce robust 3D medical image segmentation. We fuse the information from the convolutional encoder and the transformer at the skip connections of different resolutions to form the final segmentation. The proposed method is evaluated on two public challenge datasets: Cross-Modality Domain Adaptation (CrossMoDA) and task 5 of Medical Segmentation Decathlon (MSD-5), to segment vestibular schwannoma (VS) and prostate, respectively. Compared with the state-of-the-art methods, our approach demonstrates superior performance in terms of higher Dice scores.
Quantitative organ assessment is an essential step in automated abdominal disease diagnosis and treatment planning. Artificial intelligence (AI) has shown great potential to automatize this process. However, most existing AI algorithms rely on many expert annotations and lack a comprehensive evaluation of accuracy and efficiency in real-world multinational settings. To overcome these limitations, we organized the FLARE 2022 Challenge, the largest abdominal organ analysis challenge to date, to benchmark fast, low-resource, accurate, annotation-efficient, and generalized AI algorithms. We constructed an intercontinental and multinational dataset from more than 50 medical groups, including Computed Tomography (CT) scans with different races, diseases, phases, and manufacturers. We independently validated that a set of AI algorithms achieved a median Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) of 90.0\% by using 50 labeled scans and 2000 unlabeled scans, which can significantly reduce annotation requirements. The best-performing algorithms successfully generalized to holdout external validation sets, achieving a median DSC of 89.5\%, 90.9\%, and 88.3\% on North American, European, and Asian cohorts, respectively. They also enabled automatic extraction of key organ biology features, which was labor-intensive with traditional manual measurements. This opens the potential to use unlabeled data to boost performance and alleviate annotation shortages for modern AI models.
Generative Diffusion Models (GDMs) have emerged as a transformative force in the realm of Generative Artificial Intelligence (GAI), demonstrating their versatility and efficacy across a variety of applications. The ability to model complex data distributions and generate high-quality samples has made GDMs particularly effective in tasks such as image generation and reinforcement learning. Furthermore, their iterative nature, which involves a series of noise addition and denoising steps, is a powerful and unique approach to learning and generating data. This paper serves as a comprehensive tutorial on applying GDMs in network optimization tasks. We delve into the strengths of GDMs, emphasizing their wide applicability across various domains, such as vision, text, and audio generation.We detail how GDMs can be effectively harnessed to solve complex optimization problems inherent in networks. The paper first provides a basic background of GDMs and their applications in network optimization. This is followed by a series of case studies, showcasing the integration of GDMs with Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL), incentive mechanism design, Semantic Communications (SemCom), Internet of Vehicles (IoV) networks, etc. These case studies underscore the practicality and efficacy of GDMs in real-world scenarios, offering insights into network design. We conclude with a discussion on potential future directions for GDM research and applications, providing major insights into how they can continue to shape the future of network optimization.
Imagine stepping into a virtual world that's as rich, dynamic, and interactive as our physical one. This is the promise of the Metaverse, and it's being brought to life by the transformative power of Generative Artificial Intelligence (AI). This paper offers a comprehensive exploration of how generative AI technologies are shaping the Metaverse, transforming it into a dynamic, immersive, and interactive virtual world. We delve into the applications of text generation models like ChatGPT and GPT-3, which are enhancing conversational interfaces with AI-generated characters. We explore the role of image generation models such as DALL-E and MidJourney in creating visually stunning and diverse content. We also examine the potential of 3D model generation technologies like Point-E and Lumirithmic in creating realistic virtual objects that enrich the Metaverse experience. But the journey doesn't stop there. We also address the challenges and ethical considerations of implementing these technologies in the Metaverse, offering insights into the balance between user control and AI automation. This paper is not just a study, but a guide to the future of the Metaverse, offering readers a roadmap to harnessing the power of generative AI in creating immersive virtual worlds.
Among the research efforts to segment the retinal vasculature from fundus images, deep learning models consistently achieve superior performance. However, this data-driven approach is very sensitive to domain shifts. For fundus images, such data distribution changes can easily be caused by variations in illumination conditions as well as the presence of disease-related features such as hemorrhages and drusen. Since the source domain may not include all possible types of pathological cases, a model that can robustly recognize vessels on unseen domains is desirable but remains elusive, despite many proposed segmentation networks of ever-increasing complexity. In this work, we propose a contrastive variational auto-encoder that can filter out irrelevant features and synthesize a latent image, named deep angiogram, representing only the retinal vessels. Then segmentation can be readily accomplished by thresholding the deep angiogram. The generalizability of the synthetic network is improved by the contrastive loss that makes the model less sensitive to variations of image contrast and noisy features. Compared to baseline deep segmentation networks, our model achieves higher segmentation performance via simple thresholding. Our experiments show that the model can generate stable angiograms on different target domains, providing excellent visualization of vessels and a non-invasive, safe alternative to fluorescein angiography.
Due to the absence of a single standardized imaging protocol, domain shift between data acquired from different sites is an inherent property of medical images and has become a major obstacle for large-scale deployment of learning-based algorithms. For retinal vessel images, domain shift usually presents as the variation of intensity, contrast and resolution, while the basic tubular shape of vessels remains unaffected. Thus, taking advantage of such domain-invariant morphological features can greatly improve the generalizability of deep models. In this study, we propose a method named VesselMorph which generalizes the 2D retinal vessel segmentation task by synthesizing a shape-aware representation. Inspired by the traditional Frangi filter and the diffusion tensor imaging literature, we introduce a Hessian-based bipolar tensor field to depict the morphology of the vessels so that the shape information is taken into account. We map the intensity image and the tensor field to a latent space for feature extraction. Then we fuse the two latent representations via a weight-balancing trick and feed the result to a segmentation network. We evaluate on six public datasets of fundus and OCT angiography images from diverse patient populations. VesselMorph achieves superior generalization performance compared with competing methods in different domain shift scenarios.
Multi-class cell segmentation in high-resolution Giga-pixel whole slide images (WSI) is critical for various clinical applications. Training such an AI model typically requires labor-intensive pixel-wise manual annotation from experienced domain experts (e.g., pathologists). Moreover, such annotation is error-prone when differentiating fine-grained cell types (e.g., podocyte and mesangial cells) via the naked human eye. In this study, we assess the feasibility of democratizing pathological AI deployment by only using lay annotators (annotators without medical domain knowledge). The contribution of this paper is threefold: (1) We proposed a molecular-empowered learning scheme for multi-class cell segmentation using partial labels from lay annotators; (2) The proposed method integrated Giga-pixel level molecular-morphology cross-modality registration, molecular-informed annotation, and molecular-oriented segmentation model, so as to achieve significantly superior performance via 3 lay annotators as compared with 2 experienced pathologists; (3) A deep corrective learning (learning with imperfect label) method is proposed to further improve the segmentation performance using partially annotated noisy data. From the experimental results, our learning method achieved F1 = 0.8496 using molecular-informed annotations from lay annotators, which is better than conventional morphology-based annotations (F1 = 0.7051) from experienced pathologists. Our method democratizes the development of a pathological segmentation deep model to the lay annotator level, which consequently scales up the learning process similar to a non-medical computer vision task. The official implementation and cell annotations are publicly available at https://github.com/hrlblab/MolecularEL.
Virtual try-on of eyeglasses involves placing eyeglasses of different shapes and styles onto a face image without physically trying them on. While existing methods have shown impressive results, the variety of eyeglasses styles is limited and the interactions are not always intuitive or efficient. To address these limitations, we propose a Text-guided Eyeglasses Manipulation method that allows for control of the eyeglasses shape and style based on a binary mask and text, respectively. Specifically, we introduce a mask encoder to extract mask conditions and a modulation module that enables simultaneous injection of text and mask conditions. This design allows for fine-grained control of the eyeglasses' appearance based on both textual descriptions and spatial constraints. Our approach includes a disentangled mapper and a decoupling strategy that preserves irrelevant areas, resulting in better local editing. We employ a two-stage training scheme to handle the different convergence speeds of the various modality conditions, successfully controlling both the shape and style of eyeglasses. Extensive comparison experiments and ablation analyses demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in achieving diverse eyeglasses styles while preserving irrelevant areas.