Recently, generative AI technologies have emerged as a significant advancement in artificial intelligence field, renowned for their language and image generation capabilities. Meantime, space-air-ground integrated network (SAGIN) is an integral part of future B5G/6G for achieving ubiquitous connectivity. Inspired by this, this article explores an integration of generative AI in SAGIN, focusing on potential applications and case study. We first provide a comprehensive review of SAGIN and generative AI models, highlighting their capabilities and opportunities of their integration. Benefiting from generative AI's ability to generate useful data and facilitate advanced decision-making processes, it can be applied to various scenarios of SAGIN. Accordingly, we present a concise survey on their integration, including channel modeling and channel state information (CSI) estimation, joint air-space-ground resource allocation, intelligent network deployment, semantic communications, image extraction and processing, security and privacy enhancement. Next, we propose a framework that utilizes a Generative Diffusion Model (GDM) to construct channel information map to enhance quality of service for SAGIN. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework. Finally, we discuss potential research directions for generative AI-enabled SAGIN.
Extremely large-scale multiple-input-multiple output (XL-MIMO) is a promising technology to achieve high spectral efficiency (SE) and energy efficiency (EE) in future wireless systems. The larger array aperture of XL-MIMO makes communication scenarios closer to the near-field region. Therefore, near-field resource allocation is essential in realizing the above key performance indicators (KPIs). Moreover, the overall performance of XL-MIMO systems heavily depends on the channel characteristics of the selected users, eliminating interference between users through beamforming, power control, etc. The above resource allocation issue constitutes a complex joint multi-objective optimization problem since many variables and parameters must be optimized, including the spatial degree of freedom, rate, power allocation, and transmission technique. In this article, we review the basic properties of near-field communications and focus on the corresponding "resource allocation" problems. First, we identify available resources in near-field communication systems and highlight their distinctions from far-field communications. Then, we summarize optimization tools, such as numerical techniques and machine learning methods, for addressing near-field resource allocation, emphasizing their strengths and limitations. Finally, several important research directions of near-field communications are pointed out for further investigation.
Generative Artificial Intelligence (GAI) possesses the capabilities of generating realistic data and facilitating advanced decision-making. By integrating GAI into modern Internet of Things (IoT), Generative Internet of Things (GIoT) is emerging and holds immense potential to revolutionize various aspects of society, enabling more efficient and intelligent IoT applications, such as smart surveillance and voice assistants. In this article, we present the concept of GIoT and conduct an exploration of its potential prospects. Specifically, we first overview four GAI techniques and investigate promising GIoT applications. Then, we elaborate on the main challenges in enabling GIoT and propose a general GAI-based secure incentive mechanism framework to address them, in which we adopt Generative Diffusion Models (GDMs) for incentive mechanism designs and apply blockchain technologies for secure GIoT management. Moreover, we conduct a case study on modern Internet of Vehicle traffic monitoring, which utilizes GDMs to generate effective contracts for incentivizing users to contribute sensing data with high quality. Finally, we suggest several open directions worth investigating for the future popularity of GIoT.
As generative artificial intelligence (GAI) models continue to evolve, their generative capabilities are increasingly enhanced and being used extensively in content generation. Beyond this, GAI also excels in data modeling and analysis, benefitting wireless communication systems. In this article, we investigate applications of GAI in the physical layer and analyze its support for integrated sensing and communications (ISAC) systems. Specifically, we first provide an overview of GAI and ISAC, touching on GAI's potential support across multiple layers of ISAC. We then concentrate on the physical layer, investigating GAI's applications from various perspectives thoroughly, such as channel estimation, and demonstrate the value of these GAI-enhanced physical layer technologies for ISAC systems. In the case study, the proposed diffusion model-based method effectively estimates the signal direction of arrival under the near-field condition based on the uniform linear array, when antenna spacing surpassing half the wavelength. With a mean square error of 1.03 degrees, it confirms GAI's support for the physical layer in near-field sensing and communications.
An introduction of intelligent interconnectivity for people and things has posed higher demands and more challenges for sixth-generation (6G) networks, such as high spectral efficiency and energy efficiency, ultra-low latency, and ultra-high reliability. Cell-free (CF) massive multiple-input multiple-output (mMIMO) and reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS), also called intelligent reflecting surface (IRS), are two promising technologies for coping with these unprecedented demands. Given their distinct capabilities, integrating the two technologies to further enhance wireless network performances has received great research and development attention. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive survey of research on RIS-aided CF mMIMO wireless communication systems. We first introduce system models focusing on system architecture and application scenarios, channel models, and communication protocols. Subsequently, we summarize the relevant studies on system operation and resource allocation, providing in-depth analyses and discussions. Following this, we present practical challenges faced by RIS-aided CF mMIMO systems, particularly those introduced by RIS, such as hardware impairments and electromagnetic interference. We summarize corresponding analyses and solutions to further facilitate the implementation of RIS-aided CF mMIMO systems. Furthermore, we explore an interplay between RIS-aided CF mMIMO and other emerging 6G technologies, such as next-generation multiple-access (NGMA), simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT), and millimeter wave (mmWave). Finally, we outline several research directions for future RIS-aided CF mMIMO systems.
Semantic communication (SemCom) holds promise for reducing network resource consumption while achieving the communications goal. However, the computational overheads in jointly training semantic encoders and decoders-and the subsequent deployment in network devices-are overlooked. Recent advances in Generative artificial intelligence (GAI) offer a potential solution. The robust learning abilities of GAI models indicate that semantic decoders can reconstruct source messages using a limited amount of semantic information, e.g., prompts, without joint training with the semantic encoder. A notable challenge, however, is the instability introduced by GAI's diverse generation ability. This instability, evident in outputs like text-generated images, limits the direct application of GAI in scenarios demanding accurate message recovery, such as face image transmission. To solve the above problems, this paper proposes a GAI-aided SemCom system with multi-model prompts for accurate content decoding. Moreover, in response to security concerns, we introduce the application of covert communications aided by a friendly jammer. The system jointly optimizes the diffusion step, jamming, and transmitting power with the aid of the generative diffusion models, enabling successful and secure transmission of the source messages.
With the significant advancements in artificial intelligence (AI) technologies and powerful computational capabilities, generative AI (GAI) has become a pivotal digital content generation technique for offering superior digital services. However, directing GAI towards desired outputs still suffer the inherent instability of the AI model. In this paper, we design a novel framework that utilizes wireless perception to guide GAI (WiPe-GAI) for providing digital content generation service, i.e., AI-generated content (AIGC), in resource-constrained mobile edge networks. Specifically, we first propose a new sequential multi-scale perception (SMSP) algorithm to predict user skeleton based on the channel state information (CSI) extracted from wireless signals. This prediction then guides GAI to provide users with AIGC, such as virtual character generation. To ensure the efficient operation of the proposed framework in resource constrained networks, we further design a pricing-based incentive mechanism and introduce a diffusion model based approach to generate an optimal pricing strategy for the service provisioning. The strategy maximizes the user's utility while enhancing the participation of the virtual service provider (VSP) in AIGC provision. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the designed framework in terms of skeleton prediction and optimal pricing strategy generation comparing with other existing solutions.
The popularity of Metaverse as an entertainment, social, and work platform has led to a great need for seamless avatar integration in the virtual world. In Metaverse, avatars must be updated and rendered to reflect users' behaviour. Achieving real-time synchronization between the virtual bilocation and the user is complex, placing high demands on the Metaverse Service Provider (MSP)'s rendering resource allocation scheme. To tackle this issue, we propose a semantic communication framework that leverages contest theory to model the interactions between users and MSPs and determine optimal resource allocation for each user. To reduce the consumption of network resources in wireless transmission, we use the semantic communication technique to reduce the amount of data to be transmitted. Under our simulation settings, the encoded semantic data only contains 51 bytes of skeleton coordinates instead of the image size of 8.243 megabytes. Moreover, we implement Deep Q-Network to optimize reward settings for maximum performance and efficient resource allocation. With the optimal reward setting, users are incentivized to select their respective suitable uploading frequency, reducing down-sampling loss due to rendering resource constraints by 66.076\% compared with the traditional average distribution method. The framework provides a novel solution to resource allocation for avatar association in VR environments, ensuring a smooth and immersive experience for all users.
Generative Diffusion Models (GDMs) have emerged as a transformative force in the realm of Generative Artificial Intelligence (GAI), demonstrating their versatility and efficacy across a variety of applications. The ability to model complex data distributions and generate high-quality samples has made GDMs particularly effective in tasks such as image generation and reinforcement learning. Furthermore, their iterative nature, which involves a series of noise addition and denoising steps, is a powerful and unique approach to learning and generating data. This paper serves as a comprehensive tutorial on applying GDMs in network optimization tasks. We delve into the strengths of GDMs, emphasizing their wide applicability across various domains, such as vision, text, and audio generation.We detail how GDMs can be effectively harnessed to solve complex optimization problems inherent in networks. The paper first provides a basic background of GDMs and their applications in network optimization. This is followed by a series of case studies, showcasing the integration of GDMs with Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL), incentive mechanism design, Semantic Communications (SemCom), Internet of Vehicles (IoV) networks, etc. These case studies underscore the practicality and efficacy of GDMs in real-world scenarios, offering insights into network design. We conclude with a discussion on potential future directions for GDM research and applications, providing major insights into how they can continue to shape the future of network optimization.
Artificial Intelligence Generated Content (AIGC) Services have significant potential in digital content creation. The distinctive abilities of AIGC, such as content generation based on minimal input, hold huge potential, especially when integrating with semantic communication (SemCom). In this paper, a novel comprehensive conceptual model for the integration of AIGC and SemCom is developed. Particularly, a content generation level is introduced on top of the semantic level that provides a clear outline of how AIGC and SemCom interact with each other to produce meaningful and effective content. Moreover, a novel framework that employs AIGC technology is proposed as an encoder and decoder for semantic information, considering the joint optimization of semantic extraction and evaluation metrics tailored to AIGC services. The framework can adapt to different types of content generated, the required quality, and the semantic information utilized. By employing a Deep Q Network (DQN), a case study is presented that provides useful insights into the feasibility of the optimization problem and its convergence characteristics.