In this paper, we develop an effective degrees of freedom (EDoF) performance analysis framework specifically tailored for near-field XL-MIMO systems. We explore five representative distinct XL-MIMO hardware designs, including uniform planar array (UPA)-based with point antennas, two-dimensional (2D) continuous aperture (CAP) plane-based, UPA-based with patch antennas, uniform linear array (ULA)-based, and one-dimensional (1D) CAP line segment-based XL-MIMO systems. Our analysis encompasses two near-field channel models: the scalar and dyadic Green's function-based channel models. More importantly, when applying the scalar Green's function-based channel, we derive EDoF expressions in the closed-form, characterizing the impacts of the physical size of the transceiver, the transmitting distance, and the carrier frequency. In our numerical results, we evaluate and compare the EDoF performance across all examined XL-MIMO designs, confirming the accuracy of our proposed closed-form expressions. Furthermore, we observe that with an increasing number of antennas, the EDoF performance for both UPA-based and ULA-based systems approaches that of 2D CAP plane and 1D CAP line segment-based systems, respectively. Moreover, we unveil that the EDoF performance for near-field XL-MIMO systems is predominantly determined by the array aperture size rather than the sheer number of antennas.
* 32 pages, 11 figures. This paper has been submitted to IEEE journal
for possible publication
For massive multiple-input multiple-output systems in the frequency division duplex (FDD) mode, accurate downlink channel state information (CSI) is required at the base station (BS). However, the increasing number of transmit antennas aggravates the feedback overhead of CSI. Recently, deep learning (DL) has shown considerable potential to reduce CSI feedback overhead. In this paper, we propose a Swin Transformer-based autoencoder network called SwinCFNet for the CSI feedback task. In particular, the proposed method can effectively capture the long-range dependence information of CSI. Moreover, we explore the impact of the number of Swin Transformer blocks and the dimension of feature channels on the performance of SwinCFNet. Experimental results show that SwinCFNet significantly outperforms other DL-based methods with comparable model sizes, especially for the outdoor scenario.
This paper proposes a novel three-dimensional (3D) theoretical regular-shaped geometry-based stochastic model (RS-GBSM) and the corresponding sum-of-sinusoids (SoS) simulation model for non-isotropic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) Ricean fading channels. The proposed RS-GBSM, combining line-of-sight (LoS) components, a two-sphere model, and an elliptic-cylinder model, has the ability to study the impact of the vehicular traffic density (VTD) on channel statistics, and jointly considers the azimuth and elevation angles by using the von Mises Fisher distribution. Moreover, a novel parameter computation method is proposed for jointly calculating the azimuth and elevation angles in the SoS channel simulator. Based on the proposed 3D theoretical RS-GBSM and its SoS simulation model, statistical properties are derived and thoroughly investigated. The impact of the elevation angle in the 3D model on key statistical properties is investigated by comparing with those of the corresponding two-dimensional (2D) model. It is demonstrated that the 3D model is more accurate to characterize real V2V channels, in particular for pico cell scenarios. Finally, close agreement is achieved between the theoretical model, SoS simulation model, and simulation results, demonstrating the utility of the proposed models.
With the increasing demands from passengers for data-intensive services, millimeter-wave (mmWave) communication is considered as an effective technique to release the transmission pressure on high speed train (HST) networks. However, mmWave signals ncounter severe losses when passing through the carriage, which decreases the quality of services on board. In this paper, we investigate an intelligent refracting surface (IRS)-assisted HST communication system. Herein, an IRS is deployed on the train window to dynamically reconfigure the propagation environment, and a hybrid time division multiple access-nonorthogonal multiple access scheme is leveraged for interference mitigation. We aim to maximize the overall throughput while taking into account the constraints imposed by base station beamforming, IRS discrete phase shifts and transmit power. To obtain a practical solution, we employ an alternating optimization method and propose a two-stage algorithm. In the first stage, the successive convex approximation method and branch and bound algorithm are leveraged for IRS phase shift design. In the second stage, the Lagrangian multiplier method is utilized for power allocation. Simulation results demonstrate the benefits of IRS adoption and power allocation for throughput improvement in mmWave HST networks.
* 13 pages, 7 figures, IEEE Internet of Things Journal
The amalgamation of cell-free networks and reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) has become a prospective technique for future sixth-generation wireless communication systems. In this paper, we focus on the precoding and beamforming design for a downlink RIS-aided cell-free network. The design is formulated as a non-convex optimization problem by jointly optimizing the combining vector, active precoding, and passive RIS beamforming for minimizing the weighted sum of users' mean square error. A novel joint distributed precoding and beamforming framework is proposed to decentralize the alternating optimization method for acquiring a suboptimal solution to the design problem. Finally, numerical results validate the effectiveness of the proposed distributed precoding and beamforming framework, showing its low-complexity and improved scalability compared with the centralized method.
The concept of age of information (AoI) has been proposed to quantify information freshness, which is crucial for time-sensitive applications. However, in millimeter wave (mmWave) communication systems, the link blockage caused by obstacles and the severe path loss greatly impair the freshness of information received by the user equipments (UEs). In this paper, we focus on reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS)-assisted mmWave communications, where beamforming is performed at transceivers to provide directional beam gain and a RIS is deployed to combat link blockage. We aim to maximize the system sum rate while satisfying the information freshness requirements of UEs by jointly optimizing the beamforming at transceivers, the discrete RIS reflection coefficients, and the UE scheduling strategy. To facilitate a practical solution, we decompose the problem into two subproblems. For the first per-UE data rate maximization problem, we further decompose it into a beamforming optimization subproblem and a RIS reflection coefficient optimization subproblem. Considering the difficulty of channel estimation, we utilize the hierarchical search method for the former and the local search method for the latter, and then adopt the block coordinate descent (BCD) method to alternately solve them. For the second scheduling strategy design problem, a low-complexity heuristic scheduling algorithm is designed. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can effectively improve the system sum rate while satisfying the information freshness requirements of all UEs.
In this paper, we propose two deep joint source and channel coding (DJSCC) structures with attention modules for the multi-input multi-output (MIMO) channel, including a serial structure and a parallel structure. With singular value decomposition (SVD)-based precoding scheme, the MIMO channel can be decomposed into various sub-channels, and the feature outputs will experience sub-channels with different channel qualities. In the serial structure, one single network is used at both the transmitter and the receiver to jointly process data streams of all MIMO subchannels, while data steams of different MIMO subchannels are processed independently via multiple sub-networks in the parallel structure. The attention modules in both serial and parallel architectures enable the system to adapt to varying channel qualities and adjust the quantity of information outputs in accordance with the channel qualities. Experimental results demonstrate the proposed DJSCC structures have improved image transmission performance, and reveal the phenomenon via non-parameter entropy estimation that the learned DJSCC transceivers tend to transmit more information over better sub-channels.
Extremely large-scale multiple-input-multiple output (XL-MIMO) is a promising technology to achieve high spectral efficiency (SE) and energy efficiency (EE) in future wireless systems. The larger array aperture of XL-MIMO makes communication scenarios closer to the near-field region. Therefore, near-field resource allocation is essential in realizing the above key performance indicators (KPIs). Moreover, the overall performance of XL-MIMO systems heavily depends on the channel characteristics of the selected users, eliminating interference between users through beamforming, power control, etc. The above resource allocation issue constitutes a complex joint multi-objective optimization problem since many variables and parameters must be optimized, including the spatial degree of freedom, rate, power allocation, and transmission technique. In this article, we review the basic properties of near-field communications and focus on the corresponding "resource allocation" problems. First, we identify available resources in near-field communication systems and highlight their distinctions from far-field communications. Then, we summarize optimization tools, such as numerical techniques and machine learning methods, for addressing near-field resource allocation, emphasizing their strengths and limitations. Finally, several important research directions of near-field communications are pointed out for further investigation.
The data-driven approach to robot control has been gathering pace rapidly, yet generalization to unseen task domains remains a critical challenge. We argue that the key to generalization is representations that are (i) rich enough to capture all task-relevant information and (ii) invariant to superfluous variability between the training and the test domains. We experimentally study such a representation -- containing both depth and semantic information -- for visual navigation and show that it enables a control policy trained entirely in simulated indoor scenes to generalize to diverse real-world environments, both indoors and outdoors. Further, we show that our representation reduces the A-distance between the training and test domains, improving the generalization error bound as a result. Our proposed approach is scalable: the learned policy improves continuously, as the foundation models that it exploits absorb more diverse data during pre-training.
* 11 pages, accepted by the 18th International Symposium on
Experimental Robotics (ISER 2023)
Reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) emerges as an efficient and promising technology for the next wireless generation networks and has attracted a lot of attention owing to the capability of extending wireless coverage by reflecting signals toward targeted receivers. In this paper, we consider a RIS-assisted high-speed train (HST) communication system to enhance wireless coverage and improve coverage probability. First, coverage performance of the downlink single-input-single-output system is investigated, and the closed-form expression of coverage probability is derived. Moreover, travel distance maximization problem is formulated to facilitate RIS discrete phase design and RIS placement optimization, which is subject to coverage probability constraint. Simulation results validate that better coverage performance and higher travel distance can be achieved with deployment of RIS. The impacts of some key system parameters including transmission power, signal-to-noise ratio threshold, number of RIS elements, number of RIS quantization bits, horizontal distance between base station and RIS, and speed of HST on system performance are investigated. In addition, it is found that RIS can well improve coverage probability with limited power consumption for HST communications.
* 14 figures, accepted by IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology