Recently, generative AI technologies have emerged as a significant advancement in artificial intelligence field, renowned for their language and image generation capabilities. Meantime, space-air-ground integrated network (SAGIN) is an integral part of future B5G/6G for achieving ubiquitous connectivity. Inspired by this, this article explores an integration of generative AI in SAGIN, focusing on potential applications and case study. We first provide a comprehensive review of SAGIN and generative AI models, highlighting their capabilities and opportunities of their integration. Benefiting from generative AI's ability to generate useful data and facilitate advanced decision-making processes, it can be applied to various scenarios of SAGIN. Accordingly, we present a concise survey on their integration, including channel modeling and channel state information (CSI) estimation, joint air-space-ground resource allocation, intelligent network deployment, semantic communications, image extraction and processing, security and privacy enhancement. Next, we propose a framework that utilizes a Generative Diffusion Model (GDM) to construct channel information map to enhance quality of service for SAGIN. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework. Finally, we discuss potential research directions for generative AI-enabled SAGIN.
Semantic communication (SemCom) holds promise for reducing network resource consumption while achieving the communications goal. However, the computational overheads in jointly training semantic encoders and decoders-and the subsequent deployment in network devices-are overlooked. Recent advances in Generative artificial intelligence (GAI) offer a potential solution. The robust learning abilities of GAI models indicate that semantic decoders can reconstruct source messages using a limited amount of semantic information, e.g., prompts, without joint training with the semantic encoder. A notable challenge, however, is the instability introduced by GAI's diverse generation ability. This instability, evident in outputs like text-generated images, limits the direct application of GAI in scenarios demanding accurate message recovery, such as face image transmission. To solve the above problems, this paper proposes a GAI-aided SemCom system with multi-model prompts for accurate content decoding. Moreover, in response to security concerns, we introduce the application of covert communications aided by a friendly jammer. The system jointly optimizes the diffusion step, jamming, and transmitting power with the aid of the generative diffusion models, enabling successful and secure transmission of the source messages.
Generative Diffusion Models (GDMs) have emerged as a transformative force in the realm of Generative Artificial Intelligence (GAI), demonstrating their versatility and efficacy across a variety of applications. The ability to model complex data distributions and generate high-quality samples has made GDMs particularly effective in tasks such as image generation and reinforcement learning. Furthermore, their iterative nature, which involves a series of noise addition and denoising steps, is a powerful and unique approach to learning and generating data. This paper serves as a comprehensive tutorial on applying GDMs in network optimization tasks. We delve into the strengths of GDMs, emphasizing their wide applicability across various domains, such as vision, text, and audio generation.We detail how GDMs can be effectively harnessed to solve complex optimization problems inherent in networks. The paper first provides a basic background of GDMs and their applications in network optimization. This is followed by a series of case studies, showcasing the integration of GDMs with Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL), incentive mechanism design, Semantic Communications (SemCom), Internet of Vehicles (IoV) networks, etc. These case studies underscore the practicality and efficacy of GDMs in real-world scenarios, offering insights into network design. We conclude with a discussion on potential future directions for GDM research and applications, providing major insights into how they can continue to shape the future of network optimization.
Artificial Intelligence Generated Content (AIGC) Services have significant potential in digital content creation. The distinctive abilities of AIGC, such as content generation based on minimal input, hold huge potential, especially when integrating with semantic communication (SemCom). In this paper, a novel comprehensive conceptual model for the integration of AIGC and SemCom is developed. Particularly, a content generation level is introduced on top of the semantic level that provides a clear outline of how AIGC and SemCom interact with each other to produce meaningful and effective content. Moreover, a novel framework that employs AIGC technology is proposed as an encoder and decoder for semantic information, considering the joint optimization of semantic extraction and evaluation metrics tailored to AIGC services. The framework can adapt to different types of content generated, the required quality, and the semantic information utilized. By employing a Deep Q Network (DQN), a case study is presented that provides useful insights into the feasibility of the optimization problem and its convergence characteristics.
Metaverse enables users to communicate, collaborate and socialize with each other through their digital avatars. Due to the spatio-temporal characteristics, co-located users are served well by performing their software components in a collaborative manner such that a Metaverse service provider (MSP) eliminates redundant data transmission and processing, ultimately reducing the total energy consumption. The energyefficient service provision is crucial for enabling the green and sustainable Metaverse. In this article, we take an augmented reality (AR) application as an example to achieve this goal. Moreover, we study an economic issue on how the users reserve offloading services from the MSP and how the MSP determines an optimal charging price since each user is rational to decide whether to accept the offloading service by taking into account the monetary cost. A single-leader multi-follower Stackelberg game is formulated between the MSP and users while each user optimizes an offloading probability to minimize the weighted sum of time, energy consumption and monetary cost. Numerical results show that our scheme achieves energy savings and satisfies individual rationality simultaneously compared with the conventional schemes. Finally, we identify and discuss open directions on how several emerging technologies are combined with the sustainable green Metaverse.
Vehicle count prediction is an important aspect of smart city traffic management. Most major roads are monitored by cameras with computing and transmitting capabilities. These cameras provide data to the central traffic controller (CTC), which is in charge of traffic control management. In this paper, we propose a joint CNN-LSTM-based semantic communication (SemCom) model in which the semantic encoder of a camera extracts the relevant semantics from raw images. The encoded semantics are then sent to the CTC by the transmitter in the form of symbols. The semantic decoder of the CTC predicts the vehicle count on each road based on the sequence of received symbols and develops a traffic management strategy accordingly. An optimization problem to improve the quality of experience (QoE) is introduced and numerically solved, taking into account constraints such as vehicle user safety, transmit power of camera devices, vehicle count prediction accuracy, and semantic entropy. Using numerical results, we show that the proposed SemCom model reduces overhead by $54.42\%$ when compared to source encoder/decoder methods. Also, we demonstrate through simulations that the proposed model outperforms state-of-the-art models in terms of mean absolute error (MAE) and QoE.
Artificial intelligence generated content (AIGC) has emerged as a promising technology to improve the efficiency, quality, diversity and flexibility of the content creation process by adopting a variety of generative AI models. Deploying AIGC services in wireless networks has been expected to enhance the user experience. However, the existing AIGC service provision suffers from several limitations, e.g., the centralized training in the pre-training, fine-tuning and inference processes, especially their implementations in wireless networks with privacy preservation. Federated learning (FL), as a collaborative learning framework where the model training is distributed to cooperative data owners without the need for data sharing, can be leveraged to simultaneously improve learning efficiency and achieve privacy protection for AIGC. To this end, we present FL-based techniques for empowering AIGC, and aim to enable users to generate diverse, personalized, and high-quality content. Furthermore, we conduct a case study of FL-aided AIGC fine-tuning by using the state-of-the-art AIGC model, i.e., stable diffusion model. Numerical results show that our scheme achieves advantages in effectively reducing the communication cost and training latency and privacy protection. Finally, we highlight several major research directions and open issues for the convergence of FL and AIGC.
With the phenomenal success of diffusion models and ChatGPT, deep generation models (DGMs) have been experiencing explosive growth from 2022. Not limited to content generation, DGMs are also widely adopted in Internet of Things, Metaverse, and digital twin, due to their outstanding ability to represent complex patterns and generate plausible samples. In this article, we explore the applications of DGMs in a crucial task, i.e., improving the efficiency of wireless network management. Specifically, we firstly overview the generative AI, as well as three representative DGMs. Then, a DGM-empowered framework for wireless network management is proposed, in which we elaborate the issues of the conventional network management approaches, why DGMs can address them efficiently, and the step-by-step workflow for applying DGMs in managing wireless networks. Moreover, we conduct a case study on network economics, using the state-of-the-art DGM model, i.e., diffusion model, to generate effective contracts for incentivizing the mobile AI-Generated Content (AIGC) services. Last but not least, we discuss important open directions for the further research.
The next generation of Internet services, such as Metaverse, rely on mixed reality (MR) technology to provide immersive user experiences. However, the limited computation power of MR headset-mounted devices (HMDs) hinders the deployment of such services. Therefore, we propose an efficient information sharing scheme based on full-duplex device-to-device (D2D) semantic communications to address this issue. Our approach enables users to avoid heavy and repetitive computational tasks, such as artificial intelligence-generated content (AIGC) in the view images of all MR users. Specifically, a user can transmit the generated content and semantic information extracted from their view image to nearby users, who can then use this information to obtain the spatial matching of computation results under their view images. We analyze the performance of full-duplex D2D communications, including the achievable rate and bit error probability, by using generalized small-scale fading models. To facilitate semantic information sharing among users, we design a contract theoretic AI-generated incentive mechanism. The proposed diffusion model generates the optimal contract design, outperforming two deep reinforcement learning algorithms, i.e., proximal policy optimization and soft actor-critic algorithms. Our numerical analysis experiment proves the effectiveness of our proposed methods.
In this paper, we address the problem of designing incentive mechanisms by a virtual service provider (VSP) to hire sensing IoT devices to sell their sensing data to help creating and rendering the digital copy of the physical world in the Metaverse. Due to the limited bandwidth, we propose to use semantic extraction algorithms to reduce the delivered data by the sensing IoT devices. Nevertheless, mechanisms to hire sensing IoT devices to share their data with the VSP and then deliver the constructed digital twin to the Metaverse users are vulnerable to adverse selection problem. The adverse selection problem, which is caused by information asymmetry between the system entities, becomes harder to solve when the private information of the different entities are multi-dimensional. We propose a novel iterative contract design and use a new variant of multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL) to solve the modelled multi-dimensional contract problem. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm, we conduct extensive simulations and measure several key performance metrics of the contract for the Metaverse. Our results show that our designed iterative contract is able to incentivize the participants to interact truthfully, which maximizes the profit of the VSP with minimal individual rationality (IR) and incentive compatibility (IC) violation rates. Furthermore, the proposed learning-based iterative contract framework has limited access to the private information of the participants, which is to the best of our knowledge, the first of its kind in addressing the problem of adverse selection in incentive mechanisms.