Given the growing need for automatic 3D content creation pipelines, various 3D representations have been studied to generate 3D objects from a single image. Due to its superior rendering efficiency, 3D Gaussian splatting-based models have recently excelled in both 3D reconstruction and generation. 3D Gaussian splatting approaches for image to 3D generation are often optimization-based, requiring many computationally expensive score-distillation steps. To overcome these challenges, we introduce an Amortized Generative 3D Gaussian framework (AGG) that instantly produces 3D Gaussians from a single image, eliminating the need for per-instance optimization. Utilizing an intermediate hybrid representation, AGG decomposes the generation of 3D Gaussian locations and other appearance attributes for joint optimization. Moreover, we propose a cascaded pipeline that first generates a coarse representation of the 3D data and later upsamples it with a 3D Gaussian super-resolution module. Our method is evaluated against existing optimization-based 3D Gaussian frameworks and sampling-based pipelines utilizing other 3D representations, where AGG showcases competitive generation abilities both qualitatively and quantitatively while being several orders of magnitude faster. Project page: https://ir1d.github.io/AGG/
Recently, several works tackled the video editing task fostered by the success of large-scale text-to-image generative models. However, most of these methods holistically edit the frame using the text, exploiting the prior given by foundation diffusion models and focusing on improving the temporal consistency across frames. In this work, we introduce a framework that is object-centric and is designed to control both the object's appearance and, notably, to execute precise and explicit structural modifications on the object. We build our framework on a pre-trained image-conditioned diffusion model, integrate layers to handle the temporal dimension, and propose training strategies and architectural modifications to enable shape control. We evaluate our method on the image-driven video editing task showing similar performance to the state-of-the-art, and showcasing novel shape-editing capabilities. Further details, code and examples are available on our project page: https://helia95.github.io/vase-website/
Score distillation has emerged as one of the most prevalent approaches for text-to-3D asset synthesis. Essentially, score distillation updates 3D parameters by lifting and back-propagating scores averaged over different views. In this paper, we reveal that the gradient estimation in score distillation is inherent to high variance. Through the lens of variance reduction, the effectiveness of SDS and VSD can be interpreted as applications of various control variates to the Monte Carlo estimator of the distilled score. Motivated by this rethinking and based on Stein's identity, we propose a more general solution to reduce variance for score distillation, termed Stein Score Distillation (SSD). SSD incorporates control variates constructed by Stein identity, allowing for arbitrary baseline functions. This enables us to include flexible guidance priors and network architectures to explicitly optimize for variance reduction. In our experiments, the overall pipeline, dubbed SteinDreamer, is implemented by instantiating the control variate with a monocular depth estimator. The results suggest that SSD can effectively reduce the distillation variance and consistently improve visual quality for both object- and scene-level generation. Moreover, we demonstrate that SteinDreamer achieves faster convergence than existing methods due to more stable gradient updates.
Despite the remarkable performance of score distillation in text-to-3D generation, such techniques notoriously suffer from view inconsistency issues, also known as "Janus" artifact, where the generated objects fake each view with multiple front faces. Although empirically effective methods have approached this problem via score debiasing or prompt engineering, a more rigorous perspective to explain and tackle this problem remains elusive. In this paper, we reveal that the existing score distillation-based text-to-3D generation frameworks degenerate to maximal likelihood seeking on each view independently and thus suffer from the mode collapse problem, manifesting as the Janus artifact in practice. To tame mode collapse, we improve score distillation by re-establishing in entropy term in the corresponding variational objective, which is applied to the distribution of rendered images. Maximizing the entropy encourages diversity among different views in generated 3D assets, thereby mitigating the Janus problem. Based on this new objective, we derive a new update rule for 3D score distillation, dubbed Entropic Score Distillation (ESD). We theoretically reveal that ESD can be simplified and implemented by just adopting the classifier-free guidance trick upon variational score distillation. Although embarrassingly straightforward, our extensive experiments successfully demonstrate that ESD can be an effective treatment for Janus artifacts in score distillation.
Aided by text-to-image and text-to-video diffusion models, existing 4D content creation pipelines utilize score distillation sampling to optimize the entire dynamic 3D scene. However, as these pipelines generate 4D content from text or image inputs, they incur significant time and effort in prompt engineering through trial and error. This work introduces 4DGen, a novel, holistic framework for grounded 4D content creation that decomposes the 4D generation task into multiple stages. We identify static 3D assets and monocular video sequences as key components in constructing the 4D content. Our pipeline facilitates conditional 4D generation, enabling users to specify geometry (3D assets) and motion (monocular videos), thus offering superior control over content creation. Furthermore, we construct our 4D representation using dynamic 3D Gaussians, which permits efficient, high-resolution supervision through rendering during training, thereby facilitating high-quality 4D generation. Additionally, we employ spatial-temporal pseudo labels on anchor frames, along with seamless consistency priors implemented through 3D-aware score distillation sampling and smoothness regularizations. Compared to existing baselines, our approach yields competitive results in faithfully reconstructing input signals and realistically inferring renderings from novel viewpoints and timesteps. Most importantly, our method supports grounded generation, offering users enhanced control, a feature difficult to achieve with previous methods. Project page: https://vita-group.github.io/4DGen/
Recent advancements in real-time neural rendering using point-based techniques have paved the way for the widespread adoption of 3D representations. However, foundational approaches like 3D Gaussian Splatting come with a substantial storage overhead caused by growing the SfM points to millions, often demanding gigabyte-level disk space for a single unbounded scene, posing significant scalability challenges and hindering the splatting efficiency. To address this challenge, we introduce LightGaussian, a novel method designed to transform 3D Gaussians into a more efficient and compact format. Drawing inspiration from the concept of Network Pruning, LightGaussian identifies Gaussians that are insignificant in contributing to the scene reconstruction and adopts a pruning and recovery process, effectively reducing redundancy in Gaussian counts while preserving visual effects. Additionally, LightGaussian employs distillation and pseudo-view augmentation to distill spherical harmonics to a lower degree, allowing knowledge transfer to more compact representations while maintaining reflectance. Furthermore, we propose a hybrid scheme, VecTree Quantization, to quantize all attributes, resulting in lower bitwidth representations with minimal accuracy losses. In summary, LightGaussian achieves an averaged compression rate over 15x while boosting the FPS from 139 to 215, enabling an efficient representation of complex scenes on Mip-NeRF 360, Tank and Temple datasets. Project website: https://lightgaussian.github.io/
3D scene representations have gained immense popularity in recent years. Methods that use Neural Radiance fields are versatile for traditional tasks such as novel view synthesis. In recent times, some work has emerged that aims to extend the functionality of NeRF beyond view synthesis, for semantically aware tasks such as editing and segmentation using 3D feature field distillation from 2D foundation models. However, these methods have two major limitations: (a) they are limited by the rendering speed of NeRF pipelines, and (b) implicitly represented feature fields suffer from continuity artifacts reducing feature quality. Recently, 3D Gaussian Splatting has shown state-of-the-art performance on real-time radiance field rendering. In this work, we go one step further: in addition to radiance field rendering, we enable 3D Gaussian splatting on arbitrary-dimension semantic features via 2D foundation model distillation. This translation is not straightforward: naively incorporating feature fields in the 3DGS framework leads to warp-level divergence. We propose architectural and training changes to efficiently avert this problem. Our proposed method is general, and our experiments showcase novel view semantic segmentation, language-guided editing and segment anything through learning feature fields from state-of-the-art 2D foundation models such as SAM and CLIP-LSeg. Across experiments, our distillation method is able to provide comparable or better results, while being significantly faster to both train and render. Additionally, to the best of our knowledge, we are the first method to enable point and bounding-box prompting for radiance field manipulation, by leveraging the SAM model. Project website at: https://feature-3dgs.github.io/
Recent advances in text-to-image diffusion models have enabled the photorealistic generation of images from text prompts. Despite the great progress, existing models still struggle to generate compositional multi-concept images naturally, limiting their ability to visualize human imagination. While several recent works have attempted to address this issue, they either introduce additional training or adopt guidance at inference time. In this work, we consider a more ambitious goal: natural multi-concept generation using a pre-trained diffusion model, and with almost no extra cost. To achieve this goal, we identify the limitations in the text embeddings used for the pre-trained text-to-image diffusion models. Specifically, we observe concept dominance and non-localized contribution that severely degrade multi-concept generation performance. We further design a minimal low-cost solution that overcomes the above issues by tweaking (not re-training) the text embeddings for more realistic multi-concept text-to-image generation. Our Correction by Similarities method tweaks the embedding of concepts by collecting semantic features from most similar tokens to localize the contribution. To avoid mixing features of concepts, we also apply Cross-Token Non-Maximum Suppression, which excludes the overlap of contributions from different concepts. Experiments show that our approach outperforms previous methods in text-to-image, image manipulation, and personalization tasks, despite not introducing additional training or inference costs to the diffusion steps.