Retrained large language models (LLMs) have become extensively used across various sub-disciplines of natural language processing (NLP). In NLP, text classification problems have garnered considerable focus, but still faced with some limitations related to expensive computational cost, time consumption, and robust performance to unseen classes. With the proposal of chain of thought prompting (CoT), LLMs can be implemented using zero-shot learning (ZSL) with the step by step reasoning prompts, instead of conventional question and answer formats. The zero-shot LLMs in the text classification problems can alleviate these limitations by directly utilizing pretrained models to predict both seen and unseen classes. Our research primarily validates the capability of GPT models in text classification. We focus on effectively utilizing prompt strategies to various text classification scenarios. Besides, we compare the performance of zero shot LLMs with other state of the art text classification methods, including traditional machine learning methods, deep learning methods, and ZSL methods. Experimental results demonstrate that the performance of LLMs underscores their effectiveness as zero-shot text classifiers in three of the four datasets analyzed. The proficiency is especially advantageous for small businesses or teams that may not have extensive knowledge in text classification.
Manatees are aquatic mammals with voracious appetites. They rely on sea grass as the main food source, and often spend up to eight hours a day grazing. They move slow and frequently stay in group (i.e. aggregations) in shallow water to search for food, making them vulnerable to environment change and other risks. Accurate counting manatee aggregations within a region is not only biologically meaningful in observing their habit, but also crucial for designing safety rules for human boaters, divers, etc., as well as scheduling nursing, intervention, and other plans. In this paper, we propose a deep learning based crowd counting approach to automatically count number of manatees within a region, by using low quality images as input. Because manatees have unique shape and they often stay in shallow water in groups, water surface reflection, occlusion, camouflage etc. making it difficult to accurately count manatee numbers. To address the challenges, we propose to use Anisotropic Gaussian Kernel (AGK), with tunable rotation and variances, to ensure that density functions can maximally capture shapes of individual manatees in different aggregations. After that, we apply AGK kernel to different types of deep neural networks primarily designed for crowd counting, including VGG, SANet, Congested Scene Recognition network (CSRNet), MARUNet etc. to learn manatee densities and calculate number of manatees in the scene. By using generic low quality images extracted from surveillance videos, our experiment results and comparison show that AGK kernel based manatee counting achieves minimum Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The proposed method works particularly well for counting manatee aggregations in environments with complex background.
* 18 pages, 8 figures, 2 tables, 3 algorithms, and it has been accepted
for publication in Scientific Reports
Cascade ranking is widely used for large-scale top-k selection problems in online advertising and recommendation systems, and learning-to-rank is an important way to optimize the models in cascade ranking systems. Previous works on learning-to-rank usually focus on letting the model learn the complete order or pay more attention to the order of top materials, and adopt the corresponding rank metrics as optimization targets. However, these optimization targets can not adapt to various cascade ranking scenarios with varying data complexities and model capabilities; and the existing metric-driven methods such as the Lambda framework can only optimize a rough upper bound of the metric, potentially resulting in performance misalignment. To address these issues, we first propose a novel perspective on optimizing cascade ranking systems by highlighting the adaptability of optimization targets to data complexities and model capabilities. Concretely, we employ multi-task learning framework to adaptively combine the optimization of relaxed and full targets, which refers to metrics Recall@m@k and OAP respectively. Then we introduce a permutation matrix to represent the rank metrics and employ differentiable sorting techniques to obtain a relaxed permutation matrix with controllable approximate error bound. This enables us to optimize both the relaxed and full targets directly and more appropriately using the proposed surrogate losses within the deep learning framework. We named this method as Adaptive Neural Ranking Framework. We use the NeuralSort method to obtain the relaxed permutation matrix and draw on the uncertainty weight method in multi-task learning to optimize the proposed losses jointly. Experiments on a total of 4 public and industrial benchmarks show the effectiveness and generalization of our method, and online experiment shows that our method has significant application value.
The research field of Information Retrieval (IR) has evolved significantly, expanding beyond traditional search to meet diverse user information needs. Recently, Large Language Models (LLMs) have demonstrated exceptional capabilities in text understanding, generation, and knowledge inference, opening up exciting avenues for IR research. LLMs not only facilitate generative retrieval but also offer improved solutions for user understanding, model evaluation, and user-system interactions. More importantly, the synergistic relationship among IR models, LLMs, and humans forms a new technical paradigm that is more powerful for information seeking. IR models provide real-time and relevant information, LLMs contribute internal knowledge, and humans play a central role of demanders and evaluators to the reliability of information services. Nevertheless, significant challenges exist, including computational costs, credibility concerns, domain-specific limitations, and ethical considerations. To thoroughly discuss the transformative impact of LLMs on IR research, the Chinese IR community conducted a strategic workshop in April 2023, yielding valuable insights. This paper provides a summary of the workshop's outcomes, including the rethinking of IR's core values, the mutual enhancement of LLMs and IR, the proposal of a novel IR technical paradigm, and open challenges.
Vision-language pre-training (VLP) models have shown vulnerability to adversarial examples in multimodal tasks. Furthermore, malicious adversaries can be deliberately transferred to attack other black-box models. However, existing work has mainly focused on investigating white-box attacks. In this paper, we present the first study to investigate the adversarial transferability of recent VLP models. We observe that existing methods exhibit much lower transferability, compared to the strong attack performance in white-box settings. The transferability degradation is partly caused by the under-utilization of cross-modal interactions. Particularly, unlike unimodal learning, VLP models rely heavily on cross-modal interactions and the multimodal alignments are many-to-many, e.g., an image can be described in various natural languages. To this end, we propose a highly transferable Set-level Guidance Attack (SGA) that thoroughly leverages modality interactions and incorporates alignment-preserving augmentation with cross-modal guidance. Experimental results demonstrate that SGA could generate adversarial examples that can strongly transfer across different VLP models on multiple downstream vision-language tasks. On image-text retrieval, SGA significantly enhances the attack success rate for transfer attacks from ALBEF to TCL by a large margin (at least 9.78% and up to 30.21%), compared to the state-of-the-art.
Social Internet of Things (SIoT), a promising and emerging paradigm that injects the notion of social networking into smart objects (i.e., things), paving the way for the next generation of Internet of Things. However, due to the risks and uncertainty, a crucial and urgent problem to be settled is establishing reliable relationships within SIoT, that is, trust evaluation. Graph neural networks for trust evaluation typically adopt a straightforward way such as one-hot or node2vec to comprehend node characteristics, which ignores the valuable semantic knowledge attached to nodes. Moreover, the underlying structure of SIoT is usually complex, including both the heterogeneous graph structure and pairwise trust relationships, which renders hard to preserve the properties of SIoT trust during information propagation. To address these aforementioned problems, we propose a novel knowledge-enhanced graph neural network (KGTrust) for better trust evaluation in SIoT. Specifically, we first extract useful knowledge from users' comment behaviors and external structured triples related to object descriptions, in order to gain a deeper insight into the semantics of users and objects. Furthermore, we introduce a discriminative convolutional layer that utilizes heterogeneous graph structure, node semantics, and augmented trust relationships to learn node embeddings from the perspective of a user as a trustor or a trustee, effectively capturing multi-aspect properties of SIoT trust during information propagation. Finally, a trust prediction layer is developed to estimate the trust relationships between pairwise nodes. Extensive experiments on three public datasets illustrate the superior performance of KGTrust over state-of-the-art methods.
When deploying person re-identification (ReID) model in safety-critical applications, it is pivotal to understanding the robustness of the model against a diverse array of image corruptions. However, current evaluations of person ReID only consider the performance on clean datasets and ignore images in various corrupted scenarios. In this work, we comprehensively establish six ReID benchmarks for learning corruption invariant representation. In the field of ReID, we are the first to conduct an exhaustive study on corruption invariant learning in single- and cross-modality datasets, including Market-1501, CUHK03, MSMT17, RegDB, SYSU-MM01. After reproducing and examining the robustness performance of 21 recent ReID methods, we have some observations: 1) transformer-based models are more robust towards corrupted images, compared with CNN-based models, 2) increasing the probability of random erasing (a commonly used augmentation method) hurts model corruption robustness, 3) cross-dataset generalization improves with corruption robustness increases. By analyzing the above observations, we propose a strong baseline on both single- and cross-modality ReID datasets which achieves improved robustness against diverse corruptions. Our codes are available on https://github.com/MinghuiChen43/CIL-ReID.
Click-through rate (CTR) estimation is a fundamental task in personalized advertising and recommender systems and it's important for ranking models to effectively capture complex high-order features.Inspired by the success of ELMO and Bert in NLP field, which dynamically refine word embedding according to the context sentence information where the word appears, we think it's also important to dynamically refine each feature's embedding layer by layer according to the context information contained in input instance in CTR estimation tasks. We can effectively capture the useful feature interactions for each feature in this way. In this paper, We propose a novel CTR Framework named ContextNet that implicitly models high-order feature interactions by dynamically refining each feature's embedding according to the input context. Specifically, ContextNet consists of two key components: contextual embedding module and ContextNet block. Contextual embedding module aggregates contextual information for each feature from input instance and ContextNet block maintains each feature's embedding layer by layer and dynamically refines its representation by merging contextual high-order interaction information into feature embedding. To make the framework specific, we also propose two models(ContextNet-PFFN and ContextNet-SFFN) under this framework by introducing linear contextual embedding network and two non-linear mapping sub-network in ContextNet block. We conduct extensive experiments on four real-world datasets and the experiment results demonstrate that our proposed ContextNet-PFFN and ContextNet-SFFN model outperform state-of-the-art models such as DeepFM and xDeepFM significantly.
* arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2102.07619
Click-through rate (CTR) prediction plays important role in personalized advertising and recommender systems. Though many models have been proposed such as FM, FFM and DeepFM in recent years, feature engineering is still a very important way to improve the model performance in many applications because using raw features can rarely lead to optimal results. For example, the continuous features are usually transformed to the power forms by adding a new feature to allow it to easily form non-linear functions of the feature. However, this kind of feature engineering heavily relies on peoples experience and it is both time consuming and labor consuming. On the other side, concise CTR model with both fast online serving speed and good model performance is critical for many real life applications. In this paper, we propose LeafFM model based on FM to generate new features from the original feature embedding by learning the transformation functions automatically. We also design three concrete Leaf-FM models according to the different strategies of combing the original and the generated features. Extensive experiments are conducted on three real-world datasets and the results show Leaf-FM model outperforms standard FMs by a large margin. Compared with FFMs, Leaf-FM can achieve significantly better performance with much less parameters. In Avazu and Malware dataset, add version Leaf-FM achieves comparable performance with some deep learning based models such as DNN and AutoInt. As an improved FM model, Leaf-FM has the same computation complexity with FM in online serving phase and it means Leaf-FM is applicable in many industry applications because of its better performance and high computation efficiency.