Typically, training LLMs with long context sizes is computationally expensive, requiring extensive training hours and GPU resources. Existing long-context extension methods usually need additional training procedures to support corresponding long-context windows, where the long-context training data (e.g., 32k) is needed, and high GPU training costs are assumed. To address the aforementioned issues, we propose an Efficient and Extreme length extension method for Large Language Models, called E 2 -LLM, with only one training procedure and dramatically reduced computation cost, which also removes the need to collect long-context data. Concretely, first, the training data of our E 2 -LLM only requires a short length (e.g., 4k), which reduces the tuning cost greatly. Second, the training procedure on the short training context window is performed only once time, and we can support different evaluation context windows at inference. Third, in E 2 - LLM, based on RoPE position embeddings, we introduce two different augmentation methods on the scale and position index parameters for different samples in training. It aims to make the model more robust to the different relative differences when directly interpolating the arbitrary context length at inference. Comprehensive experimental results on multiple benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our E 2 -LLM on challenging long-context tasks.
In addressing the challenge of interpretability and generalizability of artificial music intelligence, this paper introduces a novel symbolic representation that amalgamates both explicit and implicit musical information across diverse traditions and granularities. Utilizing a hierarchical and-or graph representation, the model employs nodes and edges to encapsulate a broad spectrum of musical elements, including structures, textures, rhythms, and harmonies. This hierarchical approach expands the representability across various scales of music. This representation serves as the foundation for an energy-based model, uniquely tailored to learn musical concepts through a flexible algorithm framework relying on the minimax entropy principle. Utilizing an adapted Metropolis-Hastings sampling technique, the model enables fine-grained control over music generation. A comprehensive empirical evaluation, contrasting this novel approach with existing methodologies, manifests considerable advancements in interpretability and controllability. This study marks a substantial contribution to the fields of music analysis, composition, and computational musicology.
We propose EMAGE, a framework to generate full-body human gestures from audio and masked gestures, encompassing facial, local body, hands, and global movements. To achieve this, we first introduce BEATX (BEAT-SMPLX-FLAME), a new mesh-level holistic co-speech dataset. BEATX combines MoShed SMPLX body with FLAME head parameters and further refines the modeling of head, neck, and finger movements, offering a community-standardized, high-quality 3D motion captured dataset. EMAGE leverages masked body gesture priors during training to boost inference performance. It involves a Masked Audio Gesture Transformer, facilitating joint training on audio-to-gesture generation and masked gesture reconstruction to effectively encode audio and body gesture hints. Encoded body hints from masked gestures are then separately employed to generate facial and body movements. Moreover, EMAGE adaptively merges speech features from the audio's rhythm and content and utilizes four compositional VQ-VAEs to enhance the results' fidelity and diversity. Experiments demonstrate that EMAGE generates holistic gestures with state-of-the-art performance and is flexible in accepting predefined spatial-temporal gesture inputs, generating complete, audio-synchronized results. Our code and dataset are available at https://pantomatrix.github.io/EMAGE/
In machine learning systems, privileged features refer to the features that are available during offline training but inaccessible for online serving. Previous studies have recognized the importance of privileged features and explored ways to tackle online-offline discrepancies. A typical practice is privileged features distillation (PFD): train a teacher model using all features (including privileged ones) and then distill the knowledge from the teacher model using a student model (excluding the privileged features), which is then employed for online serving. In practice, the pointwise cross-entropy loss is often adopted for PFD. However, this loss is insufficient to distill the ranking ability for CTR prediction. First, it does not consider the non-i.i.d. characteristic of the data distribution, i.e., other items on the same page significantly impact the click probability of the candidate item. Second, it fails to consider the relative item order ranked by the teacher model's predictions, which is essential to distill the ranking ability. To address these issues, we first extend the pointwise-based PFD to the listwise-based PFD. We then define the calibration-compatible property of distillation loss and show that commonly used listwise losses do not satisfy this property when employed as distillation loss, thus compromising the model's calibration ability, which is another important measure for CTR prediction. To tackle this dilemma, we propose Calibration-compatible LIstwise Distillation (CLID), which employs carefully-designed listwise distillation loss to achieve better ranking ability than the pointwise-based PFD while preserving the model's calibration ability. We theoretically prove it is calibration-compatible. Extensive experiments on public datasets and a production dataset collected from the display advertising system of Alibaba further demonstrate the effectiveness of CLID.
Although link prediction on graphs has achieved great success with the development of graph neural networks (GNNs), the potential robustness under the edge noise is still less investigated. To close this gap, we first conduct an empirical study to disclose that the edge noise bilaterally perturbs both input topology and target label, yielding severe performance degradation and representation collapse. To address this dilemma, we propose an information-theory-guided principle, Robust Graph Information Bottleneck (RGIB), to extract reliable supervision signals and avoid representation collapse. Different from the basic information bottleneck, RGIB further decouples and balances the mutual dependence among graph topology, target labels, and representation, building new learning objectives for robust representation against the bilateral noise. Two instantiations, RGIB-SSL and RGIB-REP, are explored to leverage the merits of different methodologies, i.e., self-supervised learning and data reparameterization, for implicit and explicit data denoising, respectively. Extensive experiments on six datasets and three GNNs with diverse noisy scenarios verify the effectiveness of our RGIB instantiations. The code is publicly available at: https://github.com/tmlr-group/RGIB.
In large-scale industrial e-commerce, the efficiency of an online recommendation system is crucial in delivering highly relevant item/content advertising that caters to diverse business scenarios. However, most existing studies focus solely on item advertising, neglecting the significance of content advertising. This oversight results in inconsistencies within the multi-entity structure and unfair retrieval. Furthermore, the challenge of retrieving top-k advertisements from multi-entity advertisements across different domains adds to the complexity. Recent research proves that user-entity behaviors within different domains exhibit characteristics of differentiation and homogeneity. Therefore, the multi-domain matching models typically rely on the hybrid-experts framework with domain-invariant and domain-specific representations. Unfortunately, most approaches primarily focus on optimizing the combination mode of different experts, failing to address the inherent difficulty in optimizing the expert modules themselves. The existence of redundant information across different domains introduces interference and competition among experts, while the distinct learning objectives of each domain lead to varying optimization challenges among experts. To tackle these issues, we propose robust representation learning for the unified online top-k recommendation. Our approach constructs unified modeling in entity space to ensure data fairness. The robust representation learning employs domain adversarial learning and multi-view wasserstein distribution learning to learn robust representations. Moreover, the proposed method balances conflicting objectives through the homoscedastic uncertainty weights and orthogonality constraints. Various experiments validate the effectiveness and rationality of our proposed method, which has been successfully deployed online to serve real business scenarios.
As deep learning methods continue to improve medical image segmentation performance, data annotation is still a big bottleneck due to the labor-intensive and time-consuming burden on medical experts, especially for 3D images. To significantly reduce annotation efforts while attaining competitive segmentation accuracy, we propose a self-learning and one-shot learning based framework for 3D medical image segmentation by annotating only one slice of each 3D image. Our approach takes two steps: (1) self-learning of a reconstruction network to learn semantic correspondence among 2D slices within 3D images, and (2) representative selection of single slices for one-shot manual annotation and propagating the annotated data with the well-trained reconstruction network. Extensive experiments verify that our new framework achieves comparable performance with less than 1% annotated data compared with fully supervised methods and generalizes well on several out-of-distribution testing sets.
A recommendation system assists users in finding items that are relevant to them. Existing recommendation models are primarily based on predicting relationships between users and items and use complex matching models or incorporate extensive external information to capture association patterns in data. However, recommendation is not only a problem of inductive statistics using data; it is also a cognitive task of reasoning decisions based on knowledge extracted from information. Hence, a logic system could naturally be incorporated for the reasoning in a recommendation task. However, although hard-rule approaches based on logic systems can provide powerful reasoning ability, they struggle to cope with inconsistent and incomplete knowledge in real-world tasks, especially for complex tasks such as recommendation. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a neuro-symbolic recommendation model, which transforms the user history interactions into a logic expression and then transforms the recommendation prediction into a query task based on this logic expression. The logic expressions are then computed based on the modular logic operations of the neural network. We also construct an implicit logic encoder to reasonably reduce the complexity of the logic computation. Finally, a user's interest items can be queried in the vector space based on the computation results. Experiments on three well-known datasets verified that our method performs better compared to state of the art shallow, deep, session, and reasoning models.
Conversion rate (CVR) prediction is an essential task for large-scale e-commerce platforms. However, refund behaviors frequently occur after conversion in online shopping systems, which drives us to pay attention to effective conversion for building healthier shopping services. This paper defines the probability of item purchasing without any subsequent refund as an effective conversion rate (ECVR). A simple paradigm for ECVR prediction is to decompose it into two sub-tasks: CVR prediction and post-conversion refund rate (RFR) prediction. However, RFR prediction suffers from data sparsity (DS) and sample selection bias (SSB) issues, as the refund behaviors are only available after user purchase. Furthermore, there is delayed feedback in both conversion and refund events and they are sequentially dependent, named cascade delayed feedback (CDF), which significantly harms data freshness for model training. Previous studies mainly focus on tackling DS and SSB or delayed feedback for a single event. To jointly tackle these issues in ECVR prediction, we propose an Entire space CAscade Delayed feedback modeling (ECAD) method. Specifically, ECAD deals with DS and SSB by constructing two tasks including CVR prediction and conversion \& refund rate (CVRFR) prediction using the entire space modeling framework. In addition, it carefully schedules auxiliary tasks to leverage both conversion and refund time within data to alleviate CDF. Experimental results on the offline industrial dataset and online A/B testing demonstrate the effectiveness of ECAD. In addition, ECAD has been deployed in one of the recommender systems in Alibaba, contributing to a significant improvement of ECVR.