Spoken language understanding (SLU) is a fundamental task in the task-oriented dialogue systems. However, the inevitable errors from automatic speech recognition (ASR) usually impair the understanding performance and lead to error propagation. Although there are some attempts to address this problem through contrastive learning, they (1) treat clean manual transcripts and ASR transcripts equally without discrimination in fine-tuning; (2) neglect the fact that the semantically similar pairs are still pushed away when applying contrastive learning; (3) suffer from the problem of Kullback-Leibler (KL) vanishing. In this paper, we propose Mutual Learning and Large-Margin Contrastive Learning (ML-LMCL), a novel framework for improving ASR robustness in SLU. Specifically, in fine-tuning, we apply mutual learning and train two SLU models on the manual transcripts and the ASR transcripts, respectively, aiming to iteratively share knowledge between these two models. We also introduce a distance polarization regularizer to avoid pushing away the intra-cluster pairs as much as possible. Moreover, we use a cyclical annealing schedule to mitigate KL vanishing issue. Experiments on three datasets show that ML-LMCL outperforms existing models and achieves new state-of-the-art performance.
Large Multimodal Models (LMMs) have demonstrated impressive performance across various vision and language tasks, yet their potential applications in recommendation tasks with visual assistance remain unexplored. To bridge this gap, we present a preliminary case study investigating the recommendation capabilities of GPT-4V(ison), a recently released LMM by OpenAI. We construct a series of qualitative test samples spanning multiple domains and employ these samples to assess the quality of GPT-4V's responses within recommendation scenarios. Evaluation results on these test samples prove that GPT-4V has remarkable zero-shot recommendation abilities across diverse domains, thanks to its robust visual-text comprehension capabilities and extensive general knowledge. However, we have also identified some limitations in using GPT-4V for recommendations, including a tendency to provide similar responses when given similar inputs. This report concludes with an in-depth discussion of the challenges and research opportunities associated with utilizing GPT-4V in recommendation scenarios. Our objective is to explore the potential of extending LMMs from vision and language tasks to recommendation tasks. We hope to inspire further research into next-generation multimodal generative recommendation models, which can enhance user experiences by offering greater diversity and interactivity. All images and prompts used in this report will be accessible at https://github.com/PALIN2018/Evaluate_GPT-4V_Rec.
Large Language Models (LLMs) have introduced a new era of proficiency in comprehending complex healthcare and biomedical topics. However, there is a noticeable lack of models in languages other than English and models that can interpret multi-modal input, which is crucial for global healthcare accessibility. In response, this study introduces Qilin-Med-VL, the first Chinese large vision-language model designed to integrate the analysis of textual and visual data. Qilin-Med-VL combines a pre-trained Vision Transformer (ViT) with a foundational LLM. It undergoes a thorough two-stage curriculum training process that includes feature alignment and instruction tuning. This method enhances the model's ability to generate medical captions and answer complex medical queries. We also release ChiMed-VL, a dataset consisting of more than 1M image-text pairs. This dataset has been carefully curated to enable detailed and comprehensive interpretation of medical data using various types of images.
Integrating large language models (LLMs) into healthcare presents potential but faces challenges. Directly pre-training LLMs for domains like medicine is resource-heavy and sometimes unfeasible. Sole reliance on Supervised Fine-tuning (SFT) can result in overconfident predictions and may not tap into domain specific insights. Addressing these challenges, we present a multi-stage training method combining Domain-specific Continued Pre-training (DCPT), SFT, and Direct Preference Optimization (DPO). A notable contribution of our study is the introduction of a 3Gb Chinese Medicine (ChiMed) dataset, encompassing medical question answering, plain texts, knowledge graphs, and dialogues, segmented into three training stages. The medical LLM trained with our pipeline, Qilin-Med, exhibits significant performance boosts. In the CPT and SFT phases, it achieves 38.4% and 40.0% accuracy on the CMExam, surpassing Baichuan-7B's 33.5%. In the DPO phase, on the Huatuo-26M test set, it scores 16.66 in BLEU-1 and 27.44 in ROUGE1, outperforming the SFT's 12.69 and 24.21. This highlights the strength of our training approach in refining LLMs for medical applications.
The goal of speech enhancement (SE) is to eliminate the background interference from the noisy speech signal. Generative models such as diffusion models (DM) have been applied to the task of SE because of better generalization in unseen noisy scenes. Technical routes for the DM-based SE methods can be summarized into three types: task-adapted diffusion process formulation, generator-plus-conditioner (GPC) structures and the multi-stage frameworks. We focus on the first two approaches, which are constructed under the GPC architecture and use the task-adapted diffusion process to better deal with the real noise. However, the performance of these SE models is limited by the following issues: (a) Non-Gaussian noise estimation in the task-adapted diffusion process. (b) Conditional domain bias caused by the weak conditioner design in the GPC structure. (c) Large amount of residual noise caused by unreasonable interpolation operations during inference. To solve the above problems, we propose a noise-aware diffusion-based SE model (NADiffuSE) to boost the SE performance, where the noise representation is extracted from the noisy speech signal and introduced as a global conditional information for estimating the non-Gaussian components. Furthermore, the anchor-based inference algorithm is employed to achieve a compromise between the speech distortion and noise residual. In order to mitigate the performance degradation caused by the conditional domain bias in the GPC framework, we investigate three model variants, all of which can be viewed as multi-stage SE based on the preprocessing networks for Mel spectrograms. Experimental results show that NADiffuSE outperforms other DM-based SE models under the GPC infrastructure. Audio samples are available at: https://square-of-w.github.io/NADiffuSE-demo/.
Recently, the fast development of Large Language Models (LLMs) such as ChatGPT has significantly advanced NLP tasks by enhancing the capabilities of conversational models. However, the application of LLMs in the recommendation domain has not been thoroughly investigated. To bridge this gap, we propose LLMRec, a LLM-based recommender system designed for benchmarking LLMs on various recommendation tasks. Specifically, we benchmark several popular off-the-shelf LLMs, such as ChatGPT, LLaMA, ChatGLM, on five recommendation tasks, including rating prediction, sequential recommendation, direct recommendation, explanation generation, and review summarization. Furthermore, we investigate the effectiveness of supervised finetuning to improve LLMs' instruction compliance ability. The benchmark results indicate that LLMs displayed only moderate proficiency in accuracy-based tasks such as sequential and direct recommendation. However, they demonstrated comparable performance to state-of-the-art methods in explainability-based tasks. We also conduct qualitative evaluations to further evaluate the quality of contents generated by different models, and the results show that LLMs can truly understand the provided information and generate clearer and more reasonable results. We aspire that this benchmark will serve as an inspiration for researchers to delve deeper into the potential of LLMs in enhancing recommendation performance. Our codes, processed data and benchmark results are available at https://github.com/williamliujl/LLMRec.
Transformer-based sequential recommendation (SR) has been booming in recent years, with the self-attention mechanism as its key component. Self-attention has been widely believed to be able to effectively select those informative and relevant items from a sequence of interacted items for next-item prediction via learning larger attention weights for these items. However, this may not always be true in reality. Our empirical analysis of some representative Transformer-based SR models reveals that it is not uncommon for large attention weights to be assigned to less relevant items, which can result in inaccurate recommendations. Through further in-depth analysis, we find two factors that may contribute to such inaccurate assignment of attention weights: sub-optimal position encoding and noisy input. To this end, in this paper, we aim to address this significant yet challenging gap in existing works. To be specific, we propose a simple yet effective framework called Attention Calibration for Transformer-based Sequential Recommendation (AC-TSR). In AC-TSR, a novel spatial calibrator and adversarial calibrator are designed respectively to directly calibrates those incorrectly assigned attention weights. The former is devised to explicitly capture the spatial relationships (i.e., order and distance) among items for more precise calculation of attention weights. The latter aims to redistribute the attention weights based on each item's contribution to the next-item prediction. AC-TSR is readily adaptable and can be seamlessly integrated into various existing transformer-based SR models. Extensive experimental results on four benchmark real-world datasets demonstrate the superiority of our proposed ACTSR via significant recommendation performance enhancements. The source code is available at https://github.com/AIM-SE/AC-TSR.
Learning representations for graph-structured data is essential for graph analytical tasks. While remarkable progress has been made on static graphs, researches on temporal graphs are still in its beginning stage. The bottleneck of the temporal graph representation learning approach is the neighborhood aggregation strategy, based on which graph attributes share and gather information explicitly. Existing neighborhood aggregation strategies fail to capture either the short-term features or the long-term features of temporal graph attributes, leading to unsatisfactory model performance and even poor robustness and domain generality of the representation learning method. To address this problem, we propose a Frame-level Timeline Modeling (FTM) method that helps to capture both short-term and long-term features and thus learns more informative representations on temporal graphs. In particular, we present a novel link-based framing technique to preserve the short-term features and then incorporate a timeline aggregator module to capture the intrinsic dynamics of graph evolution as long-term features. Our method can be easily assembled with most temporal GNNs. Extensive experiments on common datasets show that our method brings great improvements to the capability, robustness, and domain generality of backbone methods in downstream tasks. Our code can be found at https://github.com/yeeeqichen/FTM.
Knowledge-aware question answering (KAQA) requires the model to answer questions over a knowledge base, which is essential for both open-domain QA and domain-specific QA, especially when language models alone cannot provide all the knowledge needed. Despite the promising result of recent KAQA systems which tend to integrate linguistic knowledge from pre-trained language models (PLM) and factual knowledge from knowledge graphs (KG) to answer complex questions, a bottleneck exists in effectively fusing the representations from PLMs and KGs because of (i) the semantic and distributional gaps between them, and (ii) the difficulties in joint reasoning over the provided knowledge from both modalities. To address the above two problems, we propose a Fine-grained Two-stage training framework (FiTs) to boost the KAQA system performance: The first stage aims at aligning representations from the PLM and the KG, thus bridging the modality gaps between them, named knowledge adaptive post-training. The second stage, called knowledge-aware fine-tuning, aims to improve the model's joint reasoning ability based on the aligned representations. In detail, we fine-tune the post-trained model via two auxiliary self-supervised tasks in addition to the QA supervision. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our approach achieves state-of-the-art performance on three benchmarks in the commonsense reasoning (i.e., CommonsenseQA, OpenbookQA) and medical question answering (i.e., MedQA-USMILE) domains.